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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7951536, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7951536
Review Article

Multidisciplinary Management of Pituitary Apoplexy

1Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
2Unit of Neurosurgery, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
3Unit of Neuroradiology, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
4Unit of Ophthalmology, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy

Received 26 June 2016; Revised 19 October 2016; Accepted 6 November 2016

Academic Editor: Sabrina Corbetta

Copyright © 2016 Adriana Albani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome due to ischemic or haemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland which complicates 2–12% of pituitary tumours, especially nonfunctioning adenomas. In many cases, it results in severe neurological, ophthalmological, and endocrinological consequences and may require prompt surgical decompression. Pituitary apoplexy represents a rare medical emergency that necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. Modalities of treatment and times of intervention are still largely debated. Therefore, the management of patients with pituitary apoplexy is often empirically individualized and clinical outcome is inevitably related to the multidisciplinary team’s skills and experience. This review aims to highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of pituitary apoplexy and to discuss modalities of presentation, treatment, and times of intervention.