International Journal of Endocrinology / 2016 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Biology of Beige Adipocyte and Possible Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity

Figure 1

The effects of cold on the induction of thermogenic active adipocyte. The secretion of norepinephrine (NE) directly from nervous sympathetic system or indirectly through catecholamine secretion by macrophage type 2 can stimulate glucose uptake in fat cells and improve the regulation of carbohydrate. Both glucose and triglycerides are used by UCP1 protein to increase thermogenesis. FFA: free fatty acid; M2: macrophages 2, SNS: sympathetic nervous system; PKA: protein kinase A; UCP1: uncoupling protein 1; PGC-1α: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator alpha 1.

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