Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2017, Article ID 1365209, 9 pages
Research Article

Combination Therapy with a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Additively Suppresses Macrophage Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Mice

1Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
2Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
3Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Tsutomu Hirano;

Received 8 December 2016; Accepted 12 February 2017; Published 19 March 2017

Academic Editor: Maria L. Dufau

Copyright © 2017 Michishige Terasaki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), in addition to their antihyperglycemic roles, have antiatherosclerotic effects. We reported that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) suppress atherosclerosis in a glucose-dependent manner in diabetic mice. Here, we investigated the effects of combination therapy with SGLT2i and DPP-4i on atherosclerosis in diabetic mice. SGLT2i (ipragliflozin, 1.0 mg/kg/day) and DPP-4i (alogliptin, 8.0 mg/kg/day), either alone or in combination, were administered to db/db mice or streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E-null (Apoe−/−) mice. Ipragliflozin and alogliptin monotherapies improved glucose intolerance; however, combination therapy did not show further improvement. The foam cell formation of peritoneal macrophages was suppressed by both the ipragliflozin and alogliptin monotherapies and was further enhanced by combination therapy. Although foam cell formation was closely associated with HbA1c levels in all groups, DPP-4i alone or the combination group showed further suppression of foam cell formation compared with the control or SGLT2i group at corresponding HbA1c levels. Both ipragliflozin and alogliptin monotherapies decreased scavenger receptors and increased cholesterol efflux regulatory genes in peritoneal macrophages, and combination therapy showed additive changes. In diabetic Apoe−/− mice, combination therapy showed the greatest suppression of plaque volume in the aortic root. In conclusion, combination therapy with SGLT2i and DPP4i synergistically suppresses macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in diabetic mice.