Elevated and Correlated Expressions of miR-24, miR-30d, miR-146a, and SFRP-4 in Human Abdominal Adipose Tissue Play a Role in Adiposity and Insulin Resistance
Differential expression and correlation analysis identify key coexpressed abdominal adipose tissue (AbdAT) miRNAs that appear to interact with AbdAT SFRP4. AbdAT miRNAs measured by qRT-PCR are elevated in subjects with obesity and diabetes (a–f). Levels of select miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins in AbdAT were modeled using generalized linear models (GLMs with a gamma family and log link) as a function of a T2DM-related variable with two levels (ND, T2DM) and a BMI-related variable with two levels (lean, obesity). GLMs controlled for potential confounders including age, gender, and ethnicity. Visualization of the regression models was rendered with the R package visreg. Boxplots with overlapped dot plots display the adjusted values (partial residuals). Mean represented by the blue line and 95% confidence interval of the mean as a grey band. ND: subjects without type 2 diabetes; T2DM: subjects with type 2 diabetes; Adj. ln: natural logarithm value of the measurement adjusted for confounders including age, gender, and ethnicity. Partial correlation analysis identified seemingly coregulated miRNAs and significant associations between specific AbdAT miRNAs and AbdAT SFRP4 and measures of adiposity (g–l). Correlation scatterplots including miRNA variables display the −ΔCt data from differentially expressed AbdAT miRNAs and were generated with the R package ggplot2. The reported partial correlation that controlled for age, gender, and ethnicity was calculated with the ppcor package. The blue line and gray band represent the linear fit of the plotted values and the 95% confidence interval of the fit, respectively. The secondary analysis of miRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue was performed in seventeen subjects (lean and subjects with obesity ), as per sample availability.
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