Table 2: Atorvastatin use and dysregulation of diabetes mellitus.

Study author, yearDesignStudy locationTotal population (% F)Total population: age, mean (SD), median (range/IQR)Comparison groupsDM typeDuration of studyQuantitative results related to atorvastatin

Tam et al., 2010 [19]Clinical trialChina80 (NA)NA, NAAtorvastatin and placeboT2DM6 monthsFPG (mmol/L) (vs baseline)
Placebo: 7.95 ± 1.99 → 7.56 ± 2.06, ns
Atorvastatin: 7.91 ± 2.10 → 8.03 ± 2.48, ns
HbA1c (%) [mmol/mol] (vs baseline)
Placebo: 8.0 ± 1.1 [64 ± 11] → 8.0 ± 1.2 [64 ± 10], ns
Atorvastatin: 7.8 ± 1.2 [62 ± 10] → 8.2 ± 1.4 [66 ± 8], ns
Placebo vs atorvastatin: ns

Mandosi et al., 2010 [2]Clinical trialItaly22 (23%)60.8 (7.1), NAAll atorvastatin 20 mg usersT2DM8 weeksFrom baseline
HbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]: 7.6 ± 1.1 [60 ± 11] → 7.6 ± 0.9 [60 ± 14],
FPG (mmol/L): 8.6 ± 2.2 → 9.1 ± 1.9,

Koh et al., 2010 [9]Clinical trialKorea213 (50%)NA, NAAtorvastatin 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg, and placeboT2DM & without diabetes2 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
Placebo: 5.8 ± 0.5 [40 ± 18] → 5.8 ± 0.6 [40 ± 17], ns
10 mg: 5.8 ± 0.6 [40 ± 17] → 6.0 ± 0.6 [42 ± 17] ( vs baseline)
20 mg: 5.9 ± 0.8 [41 ± 15] → 6.2 ± 0.9 [44 ± 14] ( vs baseline, vs placebo)
40 mg: 6.1 ± 0.8 [43 ± 15] → 6.4 ± 1.0 [46 ± 13] ( vs baseline, vs placebo)
80 mg: 6.1 ± 0.8 [43 ± 15] → 6.4 ± 1.1 [46 ± 11] ( vs baseline, vs placebo)
Global ANOVA:

Tehrani et al., 2010 [20]Clinical trialSweden20 (NA)NA
44 (39–61)
Atorvastatin 80 mg and placeboT1DM2 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
Placebo: 7.6 ± 0.9 [60 ± 14] → 7.3 ± 0.8 [56 ± 15]
Atorva 80 mg: 7.5 ± 0.9 [58 ± 14] → 7.8 ± 1.1 [62 ± 11],
Atorva vs placebo:

Rutter et al., 2011 [21]Clinical trialUK119 (17%)64 (10)
NA
Atorvastatin 80 mg and atorvastatin 10 mgT2DM2.1 yearsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol] (vs baseline)
Atorva 10 mg vs 80 mg: 0.3 [2.4] (0.1–0.5) [0.4–4.3],
Tehrani et al., 2013 [13]Clinical trialSweden20 (50%)NA
44 (39–61)
Atorvastatin 80 mg and placeboT1DM2 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
Atorvastatin treatment period:
7.5 ± 0.9 [58 ± 14] → 7.8 ± 1.1 [62 ± 11],
Atorvastatin vs placebo:

Grigoropoulou et al., 2014 [18]Clinical trialGreece79 (61%)NA
NA (45–75)
Atorvastatin 10 mg and controlT2DM12 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol], (0 → 3mo → 6mo → 12mo)
Atorvastatin: 6.7 ± 0.8 [50 ± 15] → 6.7 ± 0.7 [50 ± 16] → 6.8 ± 0.8 [51 ± 15] → 6.9 ± 0.7 [52 ± 16],
Control: 7.0 ± 0.7 [53 ± 16] → 6.8 ± 0.6 [51 ± 17] → 6.9 ± 0.7 [52 ± 16] → 7.0 ± 0.7 [53 ± 16],
Atorvastatin vs control:
FPG (mg/dL), (0 → 3mo → 6mo → 12mo)
Atorvastatin: 141.2 ± 33.3 → 138.1 ± 27.5 → 136.2 ± 29.8 → 138.3 ± 29.8,
Control: 153.9 ± 50.6 → 142.1 ± 54.3 → 142.7 ± 42.2 → 145.6 ± 35.5,
Atorvastatin vs control:

Thongtang et al., 2011 [23]Clinical trialUSA272 (49%)NA, NAAtorvastatin 80 mg, rosuvastatin 40 mgT2DM & without diabetes6 weeksHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
Mean differences vs baseline:
Atorvastatin: +0.1 [22] (−2.6–9.3) [−52–78]

Martin et al., 2011 [24]Clinical trialGermany89 (40%)30 (NA), NA (18–39)Atorvastatin 80 mg and placeboT1DM18 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol] (baseline → 6mo → 18mo)
Atorvastatin vs baseline:
7.8 [62] → 6.6 [49] → 6.8 [51],
Atorvastatin vs placebo: ns

Simsek et al., 2012 [10]Clinical trialNetherlands263 (54%)60 (10), NAAtorvastatin and rosuvastatinT2DM24 weeksHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol] 18w vs baseline:
Atorva 80 mg: 7.4 ± 1.0 [57 ± 13] → 7.7 ± 1.3 [61 ± 9],
HbA1c 6w vs baseline:
Atorva 20 mg: 7.4 ± 1.0 [57 ± 13] → 7.5 ± 1.1 [58 ± 11], ns
Mean FPG (mmol/L) 18w vs baseline:
Atorva 80 mg: 8.7 ± 2.4 → 9.0 ± 3.0, ns
Mean FPG (mmol/L) 6w vs baseline:
Atorva 20 mg: 8.7 ± 2.4 → 9.5 ± 3.0,

Puurunen et al., 2013 [25]Clinical trialFinland28 (100%)NA
NA (29–50)
Atorvastatin 20 mg and placeboWithout diabetes6 monthsFPG, mmol/L (0 → 3mo → 6mo)
Atorva: 5.5 ± 0.3 → 5.5 ± 0.4 → 5.5 ± 0.4,
Placebo: 5.3 ± 0.3 → 5.3 ± 0.3 → 5.0 ± 0.5,
Atorva vs placebo (6mo):

Chu et al., 2008 [17]Clinical trialTaiwan29 (50%)60.0 (2.2)
NA (18–80)
Atorvastatin 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mgT2DM12 weeksHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
10 mg: 7.6 ± 0.4 [60 ± 19] → 7.4 ± 0.3 [57 ± 20], ns
20 mg: 8.2 ± 0.3 [66 ± 20] → 8.0 ± 0.3 [64 ± 20], ns
40 mg: 8.3 ± 0.3 [67 ± 20] → 8.7 ± 0.5 [72 ± 18], ns

Goyal et al., 2014 [27]Clinical trialIndia43 (37.21%)NA, NAAtorvastatin 10 mg and placeboT2DM12 weeksHbA1c, (%) [mmol/mol] (vs baseline)
Atorva: 7.6 ± 0.9 [60 ± 14] → 7.6 ± 1.4 [60 ± 8],
Placebo: 7.9 ± 0.9 [63 ± 14] → 7.4 ± 1.8 [57 ± 4],
FPG (mmol/L) (vs baseline)
Atorva: 7.44 ± 1.52 → 7.99 ± 2.18,
Placebo: 8.18 ± 1.86 → 8.16 ± 3.28,

Ogawa et al., 2014 [3]Clinical trialJapan1018 (54.22%)66.4 (11.1)
NA
Atorvastatin 10 mg and rosuvastatin 5 mgT2DM12 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol] (0 → 6mo → 12mo)
Atorva: 6.4 [46] → 6.5 [48] → 6.5 [48], ns
Glu (mg/dL) (0 → 6mo → 12mo)
Atorva: 118.8 → 126.0 → 122.8,
Sadeghi et al., 2014 [5]Clinical trialIran140 (55%)NA, NAAtorvastatin 40 mg and atorvastatin 20 mgWithout diabetes3 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol] (0 → 3mo):
Atorva 40 mg: 5.5 ± 0.6 [37 ± 17] → 5.9 ± 0.6 [41 ± 17],
Atorva 20 mg: 5.5 ± 0.7 [37 ± 16] → 5.5 ± 0.6 [37 ± 17],
Atorva 40 mg vs 20 mg:
FPG (mg/dL) (0 → 3mo):
Atorva 40 mg: 85.67 ± 13.59 → 99.86 ± 16.22,
Atorva 20 mg: 84.63 ± 26.26 → 85.21 ± 14.19,
Atorva 40 mg vs 20 mg:

Black et al., 2014 [28]Clinical trialUK13 (0%)61.3 (2.5), NA (35–70)Atorvastatin 10 mg and fenofibrate 267 mgT2DM12 weeksHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol] (0 → 12w)
Atorva 10 mg: 7.0 ± 0.2 [53 ± 21] → 7.1 ± 0.3 [54 ± 20], ns
Fenofibrate 267 mg: 7.1 ± 0.2 [54 ± 21] → 7.0 ± 0.3 [53 ± 20], ns
Atorva10 mg vs fenofibrate 267 mg:
FPG (mmol/L) (0 → 12w)
Atorva 10 mg: 7.6 ± 0.3 → 8.4 ± 0.5, ns
Fenofibrate 267 mg: 8.1 ± 0.5 → 7.7 ± 0.5, ns
Atorva 10 mg vs fenofibrate 267 mg:

Tanaka, 2011 [29]Study 1: prospective cohort studyJapan114 (49%)NA, NAStudy 1: (statin-naïve and other statin users) all switched to atorvastatin 10 mgT2DMStudy 1: 3 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
Study 1 (vs baseline)
Statin-naïve: 7.6 ± 1.1 [60 ± 11] → 7.5 ± 0.9 [58 ± 14], ns
Statin users: 7.1 ± 1.1 [54 ± 11] → 7.1 ± 1.0 [54 ± 13], ns
Study 2: retrospective cohort studyStudy 2: all atorvastatin users‚ÄČStudy 2: 3 yearsStudy 2 (vs baseline)
Baseline: 7.8 ± 1.5 [62 ± 7] → 1y: 7.6 ± 1.4 [60 ± 8],  → 2y: 7.4 ± 1.5 [57 ± 7],  → 3y: 7.5 ± 1.5 [58 ± 7],
Yamakawa et al., 2008 [11]Retrospective cohort studyJapan279 (54%)NA, NAAtorvastatin 10 mg
Pitavastatin 2 mg
Pravastatin 10 mg
T2DM3 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
Atorva: 7.0 ± 1.1 [53 ± 11] → 7.4 ± 1.2 [57 ± 10],
Glu (mg/dL)
Atorva: 147 ± 51 → 176 ± 69, .

Takano et al., 2006 [33]Retrospective cohort studyJapan154 (56%)NA, NAAtorvastatin 10 mg, pravastatin 10 mgT2DM3 monthsHbA1c (%) [mmol/mol]
Atorva: 6.8 ± 0.9 [51 ± 14] → 7.2 ± 1.1 [55 ± 11],
Glu (mg/dL)
Atorva: 147 ± 50 → 177 ± 70,

Shinozaki et al., 2012 [30]Cohort studyJapan1173 (54%)NA, NA (65–84)Atorvastatin and atorvastatin-untreatedT2DM6 yearsHbA1c (%) (vs baseline)
Atorvastatin treatment period: 0.06% (−0.08%–0.21%, )
Atorvastatin vs untreated:
1.69 (0.42–6.84)

Variables are expressed as absolute numbers, percentages, mean ± SD, and median (IQR). NA: not available; NS: no significance; DM: diabetes mellitus; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; T1DM: type 1 diabetes mellitus; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c: haemoglobin A1c; Glu: glucose; ANOVA: analysis of variance; Mo: months; W: weeks.