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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2018, Article ID 8641942, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8641942
Review Article

Susceptible and Prognostic Genetic Factors Associated with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Comprehensive Literature Review

Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Correspondence should be addressed to L. B. L. Prabodha; moc.liamg@ahdobarpurihal

Received 23 October 2017; Accepted 29 January 2018; Published 15 March 2018

Academic Editor: Ilias Migdalis

Copyright © 2018 L. B. L. Prabodha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a disorder of glucose metabolism. It is a complex process involving the regulation of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, gluconeogenesis, and glucose uptake at the cellular level. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the debilitating complications that is present in approximately 50% of diabetic patients. It is the primary cause of diabetes-related hospital admissions and nontraumatic foot amputations. The pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy is a complex process that involves hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and altered polyol metabolism that changes the nerve microvasculature, altered growth factor support, and deregulated lipid metabolism. Recent literature has reported that there are several heterogeneous groups of susceptible genetic loci which clearly contribute to the development of DPN. Several studies have reported that some patients with prediabetes develop neuropathic complications, whereas others demonstrated little evidence of neuropathy even after long-standing diabetes. There is emerging evidence that genetic factors may contribute to the development of DPN. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the susceptible and prognostic genetic factors associated with DPN. An extensive survey of the scientific literature published in PubMed using the search terms “Diabetic peripheral neuropathy/genetics” and “genome-wide association study” was carried out, and the most recent and relevant literature were included in this review.