Detection of Selenium and Nickel Metal Ion in Water Using Mn3O4-Cn-Modified ElectrodeRead the full article
International Journal of Electrochemistry publishes research on all aspects of electrochemistry including fundamental electrochemical processes, new electrochemical techniques and the applications of electrochemistry in analytical determination.
Professor Kenneth Ozoemena, the journal’s Chief Editor, is based at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. His current research activities include materials synthesis and characterisation, electroanalytical chemistry, electrocatalysis and electrochemical energy conversion and storage.
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Electrodeposited Benzothiazole Phthalocyanines for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acidic Medium
Tetrakis[(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-thio) phthalocyaninato] gallium(III)chloride (1) and tetrakis[(benzo[d]thiazol-2ylphenoxy) phthalocyaninato] gallium(III)chloride (2) were successfully electrodeposited onto aluminium for corrosion retardation in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution. The aim of this study was to compare the corrosion resistance of electrodeposited metallated phthalocyanines. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and polarization confirmed the aluminium corrosion inhibition potentials of complexes 1 and 2. EIS and polarization techniques showed that complex 2 performed better than complex 1, with values from EIS measurements of 82% for 1 and 86% for 2 in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid solution. The importance of electrodeposition in industries and a dearth of research on the use of electrodeposited metallated phthalocyanines necessitated this study, and results show that coatings formed by electrodeposition of 1 and 2 onto aluminium reduced its susceptibility to corrosion attack.
Synthesis, Electrochemical, Thermodynamic, and Quantum Chemical Investigations of Amino Cadalene as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Stainless Steel Type 321 in Sulfuric Acid 1M
The corrosion of stainless steel is one of the major industries’ issues that gained wide interest among researchers. It became necessary to develop and apply eco-friendly approaches to corrosion control. This work explores the inhibitory effect of a newly synthesized amino cadalene (ACM) on the corrosion of stainless steel type 321 in sulfuric acid 1M. Particularly, the experimental study consisting of electrochemical and surface analyses was conducted in conjunction with a theoretical approach. The electrochemical results showed that ACM acted as a mixed-type corrosion inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency attained 91% at 10−3M. EIS measurements revealed that both metal charge transfer and diffusion processes are involved in the interfacial metal/solution reactions. The interfacial mechanism is thoroughly investigated; the physisorption of the protonated molecules was preceded by the formation of a negative layer due to adsorption of the solution anionic species. The experimental insights are corroborated with the quantum chemical calculations.
Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen and Nitric Oxide on Mn-Based Perovskites with Different A-Site Cations
Four LnMnO3+δ (Ln = La, Pr, Sm, and Gd) perovskites were synthesized and characterized by powder XRD. It was shown that the perovskite lattice became more and more distorted when lowering the size of the A-site cation. The manganite-based perovskites were evaluated for the ability to electrochemically reduce oxygen and nitric oxide in the temperature range of 200 to 400°C. At the lowest temperature, the electrodes were better at reducing nitric oxide than oxygen. At higher temperatures, the activity for the reduction of oxygen and nitric oxide became similar. The activation energies for the reduction of oxygen and nitric oxide were markedly different for LaMnO3+δ and PrMnO3+δ whereas it was similar for SmMnO3+δ and GdMnO3+δ.
Low-Temperature Conductivity Study of Multiorganic Solvent Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Rechargeable Battery Application
The conductivity of an electrolyte plays a significant role in deciding the performance of any battery over a wide temperature range from −40°C to 60°C. In this work, the conductivity of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) at a varied salt concentration range from 0.2 M to 2.0 M in a multisolvent organic electrolyte system over a wide temperature range from −40°C to 60°C is reported. The mixed solvents used were 1,3-dioxolane (DOL), 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) with an equal ratio of DOL : DME : TEGDME (1 : 1 : 1 by volume). The experimental analysis performed over a wide temperature range revealed the maximum conductivity at salt concentrations ranging from 1.0 M to 1.4 M for equal molar solvents. The optimum salt concentration and maximum conductivity in a different solvent composition ratio (i.e., 3 : 2 : 1) for all the temperatures is reported herein. The temperature-dependence conductivity of the salt concentration did not fit the Arrhenius plot, but it resembled the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher plot behavior. The present conductivity study was carried out to evaluate the overall operable temperature limit of the electrolyte used in the lithium-sulfur battery.
Straight-Parallel Electrodes and Variable Gap for Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Reactions
The challenges to be overtaken with alkaline water electrolysis are the reduction of energy consumption, the maintenance, and the cost as well as the increase of durability, reliability, and safety. Having these challenges in mind, this work focused on the reduction of the electrical resistance of the electrolyte which directly affects energy consumption. According to the definition of electrical resistance of an object, the reduction of the space between electrodes could lower the electrical resistance but, in this process, the formation of bubbles could modify this affirmation. In this work, the performance analyses of nine different spaces between stainless steel 316L electrodes were carried out, although the spaces proposed are not the same as those from the positive electrode (anode) to the separator and from the separator to the negative electrode (cathode). The reason why this is studied is that stoichiometry of the reaction states that two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen can be obtained per every two moles of water. The proposed spaces were 10.65, 9.20, 8.25, 7.25, 6.30, 6.05, 4.35, 4.15, and 3.40 millimetres. From the nine different analysed distances between electrodes, it can be said that the best performance was reached by one of the smallest distances proposed, 4.15 mm. When the same distance between electrodes was compared (the same and different distance between electrodes and separator), the one that had almost twice the distance (negative compartment) presented an increase in current density of approximately 33% with respect to that where both distances (from electrodes to separator) are the same. That indicates that the stichometry of the electrolysis reaction influenced the performance.
Increased Cycling Performance of Li-Ion Batteries by Phosphoric Acid Modified LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathodes in the Presence of LiBOB
LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO), which has an operating voltage of 4.8 vs Li/Li+ and a theoretical capacity of 147 mAh g−1, is an interesting cathode material for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, electrolyte decomposition at the electrode can gradually decrease the capacity of the battery. In this study, the surface of the LNMO cathode has been modified with phosphoric acid (PA) to improve the capacity of the LNMO/graphite full cell. Modification of LNMO cathodes by PA is confirmed by surface analysis. Additionally, the presence of lithium bis-(oxalato) borate (LiBOB) as an electrolyte additive further enhances the performance of PA modified LNMO/graphite cells. The improved performance of PA modified cathodes and electrolytes containing LiBOB can be attributed to the suppressed Mn and Ni deposition on the anode. Elemental analysis suggests that the Mn and Ni dissolution is significantly reduced compared to unmodified LNMO/graphite cells with standard electrolyte.