Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 183735, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/183735
Research Article

Long-Term Impact Evaluation of Ground-Base Skidding on Residual Damaged Trees in the Hyrcanian Forest, Iran

Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor 46417-76489, Mazandaran Province, Iran

Received 3 August 2010; Revised 10 October 2010; Accepted 28 November 2010

Academic Editor: Robert F. Powers

Copyright © 2010 Sattar Ezzati and Akbar Najafi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Naghdi, I. Bagheri, M. Lotfalian, and B. Setodeh, “Rutting and soil displacement caused by 450c Timber Jack wheeled skidder (asalem forest northern Iran),” Journal of Forest Science, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 177–183, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Yilmaz and A. E. Akay, “Stand damage of a selection cutting system in an uneven aged mixed forest of Çimendaği in Kahramanmaras-Turkey,” International Journal of Natural & Engineering Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 77–82, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. G. Kuenzel and C. Sutton, “A study of logging damage in upland hardwoods of southern Illinois,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 35, pp. 1150–1155, 1937. View at Google Scholar
  4. D. Neely, “Healing of wound on trees,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, vol. 95, pp. 536–540, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  5. Y. Suzuki, “Damage to residual stands from thinning with short-span tower yarders: re-examination of wounds after five years,” Journal of Forest Research, vol. 5, pp. 201–204, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  6. R. Vasiliauskas, “Damage to trees due to forestry operations and its pathological significance in temperate forests: a literature review,” Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden, 2001.
  7. M. A. Pinard and F. E. Putz, “Retaining forest biomass by reducing logging damage,” Biotropica, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 278–295, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  8. Y. Suzuki, “Damage to trees of residual stand: a case study of selective thinning on dense young Japanese man-made forests,” in Proceedings of the DEMO Conference, Canadian Woodlands Forum and the International Union of Forest Research Organizations, September 1996.
  9. R. D. Nyland, Silviculture, Concept and Application, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  10. P. Bettinger and L. D. Kellogg, “Residual stand damage from cut-to-length thinning of second-growth timber in the Cascade Range of western Oregon,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 43, no. 11-12, pp. 59–64, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  11. W. K. Clatterbuck, “Logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting to different over story retention levels in a mature hardwood stand in Tennessee,” in Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference, p. 120, May 2006.
  12. J. W. Benzie, G. Hesterberg, and J. H. Ohman, “Pathological effects of logging damages four years after selective cutting in old growth northern hardwoods,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 61, pp. 786–792, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. H. Ohman, “Value loss from skidding wounds in sugar maple and yellow birch,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 68, pp. 226–230, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  14. T. V. Gallagher, R. M. Shaffer, and W. B. Stuart, “An assessment of shear damage to southern pine saw-logs,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 35, no. 11-12, pp. 87–91, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  15. E. Heitzman and A. G. Grell, “Residual tree damage along forwarder trails from cut-to-length thinning in maine spruce stands,” Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 161–167, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  16. B. Alijani and M. R. Kaviani, Introduction to Climatology, University of Tehran Press, 1995.
  17. S. D. McMahon, “Accuracy of two ground survey methods for assessing site disturbance,” Journal of Forest Engineering, vol. 6, pp. 27–34, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Najafi and A. Solgi, “Assessing site disturbance using two ground survey methods in mountainous forest,” Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, pp. 47–55, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  19. J. D. Lousier, “Impact of forest harvesting and regeneration on forest sits,” BC Ministry of Forest Land Management Report, pp. 67–92, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  20. S. T. Lacey, M. A. Rab, and M. Cormack, Effect of forest harvesting on soil physical properties; developing and evaluation meaningful soil indicators of sustainable forest management in southern Australia, Australia Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Corporation, 2003.
  21. M. A. Rab, “Recovery of soil physical properties from compaction and soil profile disturbance caused by logging of native forest in Victorian Central Highlands, Australia,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 191, no. 1–3, pp. 329–340, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. H. S. Han, L. D. Kellogg, G. M. Filip, and T. D. Brown, “Scar closure and future timber value losses from thinning damage in western Oregon,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Furutani, T. Sakai, and S. Kawanabe, “Observation for branch stub after pruning (Ill) Changes of branch stub from 2 to 4 years after pruning and knot analysis,” Bulletin of the Kyoto University Forests, vol. 59, pp. 176–186, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  24. T. W. Reisinenger and P. E. Pope, “Impact of timber harvesting on tress in a central hardwood forest in Indiana,” in Proceedings of the 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference, p. 125, University park, Pa, USA, March 1991, http://www.nsr.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr/ne148.PDF.
  25. R. D. Nyland and W. J. Gabriel, “Logging damage to partially cut hardwood stand in New York state,” State University of New York, Syracuse, AFRI Research paper no. 5, 38 pages, 1971.
  26. A. L. Shigo, “How to asses the defect status of stand,” Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 41–49, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. Fries, “Views on the choice of silvicultural methods and logging techniques in thinning,” Forestry Commission Bulletin, no. 55, pp. 95–101, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. Bobilk, Damages to residual stand in commercial thinning, M.S. thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2008.
  29. B. Limbeck-Lilienau, “Residual stand damage caused by mechanized harvesting systems,” Schlaegl Australia, October 2003.
  30. A. Solgi and A. Najafi, “Investigating of residual tree damage during ground-based skidding,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1755–1758, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  31. A. L. Shigo, “Decay and discoloration following logging wounds on northern hardwoods,” U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper no. NE-47, 1966.
  32. E. Volkert, U. Siuts, and H. Dierks, “Impact of bark stripping damage on timber quality of beech,” Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung, vol. 125, pp. 277–286, 1953. View at Google Scholar
  33. D. Welech, D. Scott, and B. W. Staines, “Barck striping damage by red deer in Stika spruce Forest in western Scotland. III. Trend in wound condition,” Forestry, vol. 70, pp. 113–120, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  34. H. S. Han and L. D. Kellogg, “Damage characteristics in young Douglas-fir stands from commercial thinning with four timber harvesting systems,” Western Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  35. S. M. Jackson, T. S. Fredericksen, and J. R. Malcolm, “Area disturbed and residual stand damage following logging in a Bolivian tropical forest,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 166, no. 1–3, pp. 271–283, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar