Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 256141, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/256141
Research Article

Opinions of Forest Managers, Loggers, and Forest Landowners in North Carolina regarding Biomass Harvesting Guidelines

Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8008, USA

Received 7 December 2011; Revised 8 March 2012; Accepted 14 March 2012

Academic Editor: Thomas V. Gallagher

Copyright © 2012 Diane Fielding et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. S. Galik, R. Abt, and Y. Wu, “Forest biomass supply in the southeastern United States—implications for industrial roundwood and bioenergy production,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 69–77, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. C. Abt, K. L. Abt, F. W. Cubbage, and J. D. Henderson, “Effect of policy-based bioenergy demand on southern timber markets: a case study of North Carolina,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1679–1686, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. G. Benjamin, R. J. Lilieholm, and C. E. Coup, “Forest biomass harvesting in the Northeast: a special-needs operation,” Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 45–49, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Damery, M. Kelty, D. Benjamin, and R. J. Lilieholm, “Developing a sustainable forest biomass industry: Case of the US Northeast,” Ecology and Environment, vol. 122, pp. 141–152, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  5. Pinchot Institute and The Heinz Center, Forest Sustainability in the Development of Wood Bioenergy in the U.S., The Pinchot Institute for conservation and The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
  6. Southern Group of State Forester‘s, “Woody Biomass Harvesting Guidelines,” Services, Utilization and Marketing Task force and Water Resources Committee Technical Paper, 2009.
  7. A. M. Evans, R. T. Pershel, and B. A. Kittler, Revised Assessment of Biomass Harvesting and Retention Guidelines, Forest Guild, Santa Fe, NM, USA, 2010.
  8. C. W. Woodall and V. J. Monleon, Sampling Protocol, Estimation, and Analysis Procedures for the Down Woody Materials Indicator of the Fia Program, GTR-NRS-22, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, Pa, USA, 2008.
  9. J. G. Benjamin, Considerations and Recommendations for Retaining Woody Biomass on Timber Harvest Sites in Maine, University of Maine, Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station, Orono, Me, USA, 2010.
  10. L. J. Schulte, L. J. Tyndall, R. Hall, and K. Grubh, “Rapid assessment of woody biomass capabilities in three regions of the U.S. Midwest,” 2008, http://www.nrem.iastate.edu/landscape/Publications/FinalWoodyBiomassReport.pdf.
  11. A. Enrich, D. Greene, and S. Baker, “Status of Harvesting & Transportation for Forest Biomass – Preliminary Results of a National Survey of Logging Contractors, Procurement Foresters, Wood Dealers and Forest Managers,” 2009, http://frec.vt.edu/cofe/documents/2010/Enrich_COFE_BiomassSurvey.pdf.
  12. F. Aguilar and H. E. Gene Garrett, “Perspectives of woody biomass for energy: survey of state foresters, state energy biomass contacts, and national council of forestry association executives,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 297–306, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Abbas, D. Current , K. Brooks, and D Arnosti, “Chapter 6: The Loggers’ Voice in Harvesting Fuel: Cutting Costs and Reducing Forest Fire Hazards Through Biomass Harvest,” The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, 2008, http://www.upwoodybiomass.org/downloads/harvesting_fuel_arnosti_et_al_2008_report.pdf.
  14. S. J. Milauskas and J. Wang, “West Virginia logger characteristics,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 19–24, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Chad Bolding, S. M. Barrett, J. F. Munsell, and M. C. Groover, “Characteristics of Virginia's logging businesses in a changing timber market,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 86–93, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. R. Becker, S. M. McCaffrey, D. Abbas, K. E. Halvorsen, P. Jakes, and C. Moseley, “Conventional wisdoms of woody biomass utilization on federal public lands,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 208–211, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. R. Peterson and C. C. Horton, “Rooted in the soil: how understanding the perspectives of land-owners can enhance the management of environmental disputes,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 139–166, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  18. J. C. Bliss, S. K. Nepal, R. T. Brooks, and M. D. Larsen, “In the mainstream: environmental attitudes of mid-south forest owners,” Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. D. Dutcher, J. C. Finley, A. E. Luloff, and J. Johnson, “Landowner perceptions of protecting and establishing riparian forests: a qualitative analysis,” Society and Natural Resources, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 319–332, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. K. Measells, S. C. Grado, H. G. Hughes, M. A. Dunn, J. Idassi, and B. Zielinske, “Nonindustrial private forest landowner characteristics and use of forestry services in four southern states: results from a 2002-2003 mail survey,” Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 194–199, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. J. Londo, “An assessment of Mississippi's nonindustrial private forest landowners knowledge of forestry BMP's,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 235–243, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. A. Kluender, T. L. Walkingstick, and J. C. Pickett, “The use of forestry incentives by non-industrial forest landowner groups: is it time for a reassessment of where we spend our tax dollars?” Natural Resources Journal, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 799–818, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. A. Kilgore and C. R. Blinn, “Policy tools to encourage the application of sustainable timber harvesting practices in the United States and Canada,” Forest Policy and Economics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 111–127, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. A. Kilgore, J. L. Greene, M. G. Jacobson, T. J. Straka, and S. E. Daniels, “The influence of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry on the nation's family forests,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 184–191, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. L. Paula, C. Bailey, R. J. Barlow, and W. Morse, “Landowner willingness to supply timber for biofuel: results of an Alabama survey of family forest landowners,” Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 93–97, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. B. Miles and A. M. Huberman, Eds., An Expanded Sourcebook, Qualitative Data Analysis, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 1994.
  27. J. Corbin and A. Strauss, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2008.
  28. D. E. Gray, Doing Research in the Real World, Sage, London, UK, 2004.
  29. A. L. Husak, S. C. Grado, and S. H. Bullard, “Perceived values of benefits from Mississippi's forestry Best Management Practices,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 171–185, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. V. Ellefson, M. A. Kilgore, and M. J. Phillips, “Monitoring compliance with BMPs: the experience of state forestry agencies,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. G. Ice, E. Schilling, and J. Vowell, “Trends for forestry best management practices implementation,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 267–273, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. A. Arthur, G. B. Coltharp, and D. L. Brown, “Effects of Best Management Practices on forest streamwater quality in eastern Kentucky,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 481–495, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. L. Schuler and R. D. Briggs, “Assessing application and effectiveness of forestry best management practices in New York,” Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 125–134, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. M. Aust and C. R. Blinn, “Forestry best management practices for timber harvesting and site preparation in the eastern United States: an overview of water quality and productivity research during the past 20 years (1982-2002),” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 5–36, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Holt, Perception to inception: assessing contractor capacity to utilize woody biomass for energy production in the Southern Willamette Valley, Oregon, M.S. thesis, 2008.
  36. S. K. Eliason, C. R. Blinn, and J. A. Perry, “Natural resource professional continuing education needs in Minnesota: focus on forest management guidelines,” Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 71–78, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Dietz, P. C. Stern, and R. W. Rycroft, “Definitions of conflict and the legitimation of resources: the case of environmental risk,” Sociological Forum, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 47–70, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. L. Dirkswager, M. A. Kilgore, D. R. Becker, C. Blinn, and A. Ek, “Logging business practices and perspectives on harvesting forest residues for energy: a minnesota case study,” Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. E. Harmon, J. F. Frankin, F. J. Swanson et al., “Ecology of course woody debris in temperate ecosystems,” Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 15, pp. 133–302, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  40. B. Freedman, V. Zelazny, D. Beaudette et al., “Biodiversity implications of changes in the quantity of dead organic matter in managed forests,” Environmental Reviews, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 238–265, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. L. Hunter, Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999.
  42. W. Jia-bing, G. De-xin, H. Shi-jie, Z. Mi, and J. Chang-jie, “Ecological functions of coarse woody debris in forest ecosystem,” Journal of Forestry Research, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 247–252, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  43. D. B. Botkin, Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
  44. T. R. Peterson, Sharing the Earth: The Rhetoric of Sustainable Development, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC, USA, 1997.
  45. G. R. Hess and D. Zimmerman, “Woody debris volume on clearcuts with and without satellite chip mills,” Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 173–177, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. E. Moorman, K. R. Russell, G. R. Sabin, and D. C. Guynn, “Snag dynamics and cavity occurrence in the South Carolina Piedmont,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 118, no. 1–3, pp. 37–48, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. A. Patrick, M. L. Hunter, and A. J. K. Calhoun, “Effects of experimental forestry treatments on a Maine amphibian community,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 234, no. 1–3, pp. 323–332, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, “Guidance from Harvesting Woody Biomass for Energy in Pennsylvania,” 2008, http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/PA_Biomass_guidance_final.pdf.
  49. R. E. Matland, “Synthesizing the implementation literature: the ambiguity-conflict model of policy implementation,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 145–174, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. “Market Facts. Market Trend. July 2002 British Columbia-wide public opinion tracking poll: Public perceptions and attitudes towards RPFs and forest management,” 2002, http://www.abcfp.ca/publications_forms/publications/documents/2002_opinion_poll.pdf.
  51. J. W. Thomas, “Are there lessons for Canadian foresters lurking south of the border?” Forestry Chronicle, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 382–387, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. K. Luckert, “Why are enrollments in Canadian forestry programs declining?” Forestry Chronicle, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 209–214, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. J. Keefer, J. C. Finley, A. E. Luloff, and M. E. McDill, “Characterizing loggers' forest management decisions,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 8–15, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. F. Egan, C. C. Hassler, and S. T. Grushecky, “Logger certification and training: a view from West Virginia's logging community,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 47, no. 7-8, pp. 46–50, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. C. Bliss, “Public perceptions of clearcutting,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 4–9, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Egan and D. Taggart, “Who will log? Occupational choice and prestige in New England's North woods,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. A. Williams, D. E. Voth, and C. Hitt, “Arkansas’ NIPF landowners’ opinions and attitudes regarding management and use of forested property,” in Symposium on Non-Industrial Private Forests: Learning for the Past, Prospects for the Future, pp. 230–237, 1996.
  58. J. C. Bliss, S. K. Nepal, R. T. Brooks Jr., and M. D. Larson, “Forestry community or grandfalloon?” Journal of Forestry, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 6–10, 1994. View at Google Scholar