Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 607879, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/607879
Review Article

History and Status of Eucalyptus Improvement in Florida

School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410, USA

Received 7 June 2012; Accepted 21 August 2012

Academic Editor: Eric D. Vance

Copyright © 2012 Donald L. Rockwood. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. F. Geary, G. F. Meskimen, and E. C. Franklin, “Growing eucalypts in Florida for industrial wood production,” Tech. Rep. SE-23, USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station General, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  2. G. Meskimen and E. C. Franklin, “Spacing Eucalyptus grandis in southern Florida,” Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3–5, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  3. E. C. Franklin, “Yield and properties of pulp from eucalypt wood grown in Florida,” TAPPI, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 65–67, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. S. Dvorak, E. C. Franklin, and G. Meskimen, “Breeding strategy for E. robusta in southern Florida,” in Proceedings of the 16th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, pp. 116–122, 1981.
  5. D. L. Rockwood and G. F. Meskimen, “Genetic, spacing, and genotype x spacing influences on growth of Eucalyptus grandis in south Florida,” in Proceedings of the 16th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, pp. 77–785, l98l.
  6. D. L. Rockwood, T. F. Geary, and P. S. Bourgeron, “Planting density and genetic influences on seedling growth and coppicing of eucalypts in southern Florida,” in Proceedings of the Southern Forest Biomass Working Group Workshop, pp. 95–102, 1982.
  7. D. L. Rockwood, R. C. Kellison, E. C. Franklin, and G. F. Meskimen, “Operational advanced generation improvement programs for minor species in the South,” Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin, vol. 309, pp. 27–37, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  8. K. V. Reddy, D. L. Rockwood, C. W. Comer, and G. F. Meskimen, “Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis for biomass production in Florida,” in Biomass Energy Development, pp. 103–1110, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  9. K. V. Reddy, D. L. Rockwood, C. W. Comer, and G. F. Meskimen, “Predicted genetic gains adjusted for inbreeding for an Eucalyptus grandis seed orchard,” in Proceedings of the 18th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, pp. 283–2289, 1985.
  10. O. J. Webley, T. F. Geary, D. L. Rockwood, C. W. Comer, and G. F. Meskimen, “Seasonal coppicing variation for three eucalypts in southern Florida,” Australian Forest Research, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 281–2290, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. F. Meskimen, D. L. Rockwood, and K. V. Reddy, “Development of Eucalyptus clones for a summer rainfall environment with periodic severe frosts,” New Forests, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 197–205, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. L. Rockwood and G. F. Meskimen, “Comparison of Eucalyptus grandis provenances and seed orchards in a frost-frequent environment,” South African Forestry Journal, vol. 159, pp. 51–59, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  13. R. Kellison, R. Lea, and P. Marsh, “The U. S. eucalyptus story imports into the U. S. South and West,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Assessment and Management of Environmental Issues Related to Eucalyptus Culture in the Southern United States, Charleston, SC, USA, February 2012.
  14. K. V. Reddy and D. L. Rockwood, “Breeding strategies for coppice production in an Eucalyptus grandis base population with four generations of selection,” Silvae Genetica, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 148–151, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. L. Rockwood, K. V. Reddy, E. I. Warrag, and C. W. Comer, “Development of Eucalyptus amplifolia for woody biomass production,” Australian Forest Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 173–1178, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  16. D. L. Rockwood, “Eucalyptus genetic resources in Florida USA,” Tech. Rep. 16, FAO Rom, FAO Forest Genetic Resources Information, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  17. D. L. Rockwood, E. E. Warrag, K. Javanshir, and K. Kratz, “Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis for southern Florida,” in Proceedings 20th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, pp. 403–410, Charleston, SC, USA, June 1989.
  18. D. L. Rockwood, N. N. Pathak, P. C. Satapathy, and E. E. Warrag, “Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus amplifolia for frost-frequent areas,” Australian Forestry, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 212–218, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  19. D. L. Rockwood, R. J. Dinus, J. M. Kramer et al., “Genetic variation for rooting, growth, frost hardiness, and wood, fiber, and pulping properties in Florida-grown Eucalyptus amplifolia,” in Proceedings 22nd Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, pp. 81–88, Atlanta, Ga, USA, June 1993.
  20. D. L. Rockwood, R. J. Dinus, J. M. Kramer, and T. J. McDonough, “Genetic variation in wood, pulping, and paper properties of Eucalyptus amplifolia and E. grandis grown in Florida USA,” in Proceedings of the CRC-IUFRO Conference Eucalypt Plantations: Improving Fibre Yield and Quality, pp. 53–59, Hobart, Australia, February1995.
  21. D. L. Rockwood, G. F. Peter, M. H. Langholtz, B. Becker, A. Clark III, and J. Bryan, “Genetically improved eucalypts for novel applications and sites in Florida,” in Proceedings of the 28th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, pp. 64–75, Raleigh, NC, USA, June 2005.
  22. S. C. Wang, J. B. Huffman, and D. L. Rockwood, “Qualitative evaluation of fuelwood in Florida —a summary report,” Economic Botany, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 381–388, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. L. Rockwood, C. W. Comer, L. F. Conde et al., “Final report: energy and chemicals from woody species in florida,” Tech. Rep. ORNL/Sub/81 9050/1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. Wang, R. C. Littell, and D. L. Rockwood, “Variation in density and moisture content of wood and bark among twenty Eucalyptus grandis progenies,” Economic Botany, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 381–388, l982. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. L. Rockwood, D. R. Dippon, and M. S. Lesney, “Woody Species for Biomass Production in Florida,” Final Report ORNL/Sub/81 9050/7, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. L. Rockwood and B. Tamang, “Description and performance of four Eucalyptus grandis cultivars released by IFAS/UF in 2009,” in Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society, pp. 330–332, Crystal River, FL, USA, June 2010.
  27. D. L. Rockwood, G. H. Snyder, and R. R. Sprinkle, “Woody biomass production in wastewater recycling systems,” Tech. Rep. 91327, TVA, Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program Publication, Muscle Shoals, Ala, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  28. D. L. Rockwood, G. H. Snyder, and R. R. Sprinkle, “Woody biomass production in waste recycling systems,” in Proceedings of the 6th National Bioenergy Conference, pp. 351–358, Reno/Sparks, Nev, USA, October 1994.
  29. D. L. Rockwood, S. M. Pisano, R. R. Sprinkle, and A. Leavell, “Stormwater remediation by tree crops in Florida,” in Proceedings of the 4th Biennial Stormwater Research Conference, pp. 309–319, Southwest Florida Water Management District, Clearwater, FL, USA, October 1995.
  30. D. L. Rockwood, C. W. Comer, D. R. Dippon, J. B. Huffman, H. Riekerk, and S. Wang, “Current status of woody biomass production research in Florida,” Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, vol. 42, pp. 19–127, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. L. Rockwood and J. T. De Valerio, “Promising species for woody biomass production in warm-humid environments,” Biomass, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. L. Rockwood and T. F. Geary, “Growth of 19 exotic and two native tree species on organic soils in Southern Florida,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Exotic Pest Plants, chapter 20, pp. 283–302, Miami, Fla, USA, November 1988, USDI, National Park Service, Rpt. NPS/NREVER/NRTR-91/06.
  33. D. L. Rockwood and G. F. Peter, Eucalyptus and Corymbia Species for Pulpwood, Mulchwood, Energywood, Windbreaks, and/or Phytoremediation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular, 2011.
  34. R. S. Zalesny Jr., M. W. Cunningham, R. B. Hall et al., “Woody biomass from short rotation energy crops,” in Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Fibers from Forest Biomass, J. Zhu et al., Ed., ACS Symposium Series, chapter 2, pp. 27–63, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. L. Stape, T. Fox, T. Albaugh, J. Alvarez, and R. Rubilar, “Recent developments in Eucalyptus culture in the SE US,” in Symposium on the Assessment and Management of Environmental Issues Related to Eucalyptus Culture in the Southern United States, Charleston, SC, USA, February 2012.
  36. I. Setsuo, L. M. Mendes, L. K. Saldanha, and J. C. dos Santos, “Use of Eucalyptus wood for oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturing,” Cerne, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  37. C. I. Campos and F. A. R. Lahr, “Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 421–425, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  38. A. Ashori, T. Tabarsa, K. Azizi, and R. Mirzabeygi, “Wood-wool cement board using mixture of eucalypt and poplar,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1146–1149, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. R. Roeder and D. L. Rockwood, “Potential stem biomass and energy content yields of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus robusta in south Florida,” Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Technical Bulletin, vol. 831, p. 6, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  40. D. L. Rockwood and D. R. Dippon, “Prospects for commercialization of Eucalyptus biomass plantations in Florida,” in Proceedings of Energy from Biomass and Wastes X, D. L. Klass, Ed., pp. 233–249, Gas Technology Institute, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1987.
  41. A. Green, J. Wagner, B. Green et al., “Co-combustion of waste, biomass and natural gas,” Biomass, vol. 20, no. 3-4, pp. 249–262, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. A. Segrest, D. L. Rockwood, J. A. Stricker, and A. E. S. Green, “Biomass cofiring with coal at Lakeland Utilities, Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program Publication,” Tech. Rep. 219287-1, TVA, Muscle Shoals, Ala, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  43. D. L. Rockwood, A. W. Rudie, S. A. Ralph, J. Y. Zhu, and J. E. Winandy, “Energy product options for Eucalyptus species grown as short rotation woody crops,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1361–1378, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. L. Rockwood, M. Kirst, J. G. Isebrands, and J. Y. Zhu, “Forest Trees,” in Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants, C. Kole, C. P. Joshi, and D. R. Shonnard, Eds., chapter 15, pp. 351–403, Taylor & Francis, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  45. W. H. Smith and D. L. Rockwood, Feedstocks for Biofuels—Encyclopedia of Energy Engineering and Technology, Taylor and Francis, 2010.
  46. G. S. Wang, X. J. Pan, J. Y. Zhu, R. Gleisner, and D. Rockwood, “Sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of hardwoods,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1086–1093, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Y. Zhu, S. P. Verrill, H. Liu, V. L. Herian, X. Pan, and D. L. Rockwood, “On polydispersity of plant biomass recalcitrance and its effects on pretreatment optimization for sugar production,” Bioenergy Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 201–210, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Martin-Sampedro, M. E. Eugenio, R. Revilla, J. A. Martin, and J. C. Villar, “Integration of Kraft pulping on a forest biorefinery by the addition of steam explosion pretreatment,” BioResources, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 513–528, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  49. M. Soberg, “U.S. EcoGen plans 60 MW Florida biomass power plant,” Biomass Power & Thermal, http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/5828/u-s-ecogen-plans-60-mw-florida-biomass-power-plant, 2011.
  50. D. L. Rockwood, D. R. Dippon, and C. W. Comer, “Potential of Eucalyptus grandis for biomass production in Florida,” Bioenergy, vol. 842, pp. 86–93, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  51. D. L. Rockwood, “Genetic improvement potential for biomass quality and quantity,” Biomass, vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 37–45, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. R. Dippon, D. L. Rockwood, and C. W. Comer, “Cost sensitivity analyses of Eucalyptus woody biomass systems,” in Biomass Energy Development, pp. 143–156, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  53. D. L. Rockwood, C. W. Comer, D. R. Dippon, and J. B. Huffman, “Woody biomass production options for Florida,” Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, vol. 856, 29 pages, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  54. D. L. Rockwood, “Development of woody biomass cultural systems for Florida,” in Biomass Energy Development, pp. 85–94, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  55. D. L. Rockwood and D. R. Dippon, “Biological and economic potentials of Eucalyptus grandis and slash pine as biomass energy crops,” Biomass, vol. 20, no. 3-4, pp. 155–165, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. E. I. Warrag, M. S. Lesney, and D. L. Rockwood, “Micropropagation of field tested superior Eucalyptus grandis hybrids,” New Forests, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 67–79, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. E. I. Warrag, M. S. Lesney, and D. L. Rockwood, “Comparative greenhouse study of Eucalyptus grandis in vitro plantlets and half-sib seedlings, I. Net photosynthesis,” Plant Cell Reports, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 497–499, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. E. I. Warrag, M. S. Lesney, and D. L. Rockwood, “Comparative greenhouse study of Eucalyptus grandis in vitro plantlets and half-sib seedlings, II. Dry matter accumulation and relative distribution,” Plant Cell Reports, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 500–503, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. E. E. I. Warrag, M. S. Lesney, and D. J. Rockwood, “Nodule culture and regeneration of Eucalyptus grandis hybrids,” Plant Cell Reports, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 586–589, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. L. Rockwood, N. N. Pathak, and P. C. Satapathy, “Woody biomass production systems for Florida,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 23–34, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. L. Rockwood and E. I. Warrag, “Field performance of micropropagated, macropropagated, and seed-derived propagules of three Eucalyptus grandis ortets,” Plant Cell Reports, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 628–631, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. L. Rockwood, S. M. Pisano, and W. V. McConnell, “Superior cottonwood and Eucalyptus clones for biomass production in waste bioremediation systems,” in Proceedings of the 7th National Bioenergy Conference, pp. 254–261, Nashville, Tenn, USA, September 1996.
  63. D. L. Rockwood, D. R. Carter, M. H. Langholtz, and J. A. Stricker, “Eucalyptus and Populus short rotation woody crops for phosphate mined lands in Florida USA,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 30, no. 8-9, pp. 728–734, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Langholtz, D. R. Carter, D. L. Rockwood, and J. R. R. Alavalapati, “The economic feasibility of reclaiming phosphate mined lands with short-rotation woody crops in Florida,” Journal of Forest Economics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 237–249, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. L. Rockwood, D. R. Carter, and J. A. Stricker, Commercial Tree Crops on Phosphate Mined Lands, Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, FIPR Publication, 2008.
  66. M. Langholtz, D. R. Carter, D. L. Rockwood, and J. R. R. Alavalapati, “The economic feasibility of reclaiming phosphate mined lands with short-rotation woody crops in Florida,” Journal of Forest Economics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 237–249, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. B. Tamang, M. G. Andreu, and D. L. Rockwood, “Sustaining farm productivity through windbreaks,” APA News, vol. 33, pp. 7–9, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  68. M. G. Andreu, B. Tamang, M. H. Friedman, and D. L. Rockwood, “The benefits of windbreaks for Florida growers,” Tech. Rep. FOR192, Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  69. M. G. Andreu, B. Tamang, D. L. Rockwood, and M. H. Friedman, “Potential woody species and species attributes for windbreaks in Florida,” Tech. Rep. FOR224, Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  70. B. Tamang, M. G. Andreu, M. H. Friedman, and D. L. Rockwood, “Windbreak designs and planting for Florida agricultural fields,” Tech. Rep. FOR227, Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  71. B. Tamang, M. G. Andreu, M. H. Friedman, and D. L. Rockwood, “Management of field windbreaks,” Tech. Rep. FOR288, Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  72. B. Tamang, M. G. Andreu, and D. L. Rockwood, “Microclimate patterns on the leeside of single-row tree windbreaks during different weather conditions in Florida farms: implications for improved crop production,” Agroforestry Systems, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 111–122, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. D. L. Rockwood, C. V. Naidu, D. R. Carter et al., “Short-rotation woody crops and phytoremediation: opportunities for agroforestry?” in New Vistas in Agroforestry, a Compendium for the 1st World Congress of Agroforestry, P. K. R. Nair, M. R. Rao, and L. E. Buck, Eds., pp. 51–63, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  74. D. L. Rockwood, L. Q. Ma, G. R. Alker, C. Tu, and R. W. Cardellino, “Phytoremediation of contaminated sites using woody biomass,” Tech. Rep., The Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  75. M. Langholtz, D. R. Carter, D. L. Rockwood, J. R. R. Alavalapati, and A. Green, “Effect of dendroremediation incentives on the profitability of short-rotation woody cropping of Eucalyptus grandis,” Forest Policy and Economics, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 806–817, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. Abichou, J. Musagasa, L. Yuan et al., “Field peformance of alternative landfill covers vegetated with cottonwood and eucalyptus trees,” International Journal of Phytoremediation, vol. 14, no. S1, pp. 47–60, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  77. D. L. Rockwood, B. Becker, and M. P. Ozores-Hampton, “Municipal solid waste compost benefits short rotation woody crops,” Compost Science and Utilization, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 67–72, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  78. D. L. Rockwood, P. J. Minogue, and J. G. Isebrands, “Phytoremediation trees for biofuel,” in Biofuel Crops, B. Singh, Ed., chapter 22, CABI, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  79. P. J. Minogue, M. Miwa, D. L. Rockwood, and C. L. Mackowiak, “Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by Eucalyptus and Populus at a tertiary treated municipal wastewater sprayfield,” International Journal of Phytoremediation, vol. 14, pp. 1–14, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  80. B. Tamang, D. L. Rockwood, M. Langholtz, E. Maehr, B. Becker, and S. Segrest, “Fast-growing trees for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) suppression and enhanced colonization of understory plant species on a phosphate-mine clay settling area,” Ecological Engineering, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 329–336, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. R. Gaskill, E. Hung, and T. Smith, “2009 Florida CAPS blue gum chalcid (Leptocybe invasa),” Tech. Rep. 2009-03-BGCW-01, Florida Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey Program, 2010, http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/caps/images/pdf_2009_caps_blue_gum_chalcid_survey_report_02-04-2010.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  82. A. A. Myburg, B. Potts, C. M. Marques et al., “Eucalyptus,” in Genome Mapping & Molecular Breeding in Plants, C. Kole, Ed., vol. 7 of Forest Trees, pp. 115–160, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar