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International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 7404907, 9 pages
Research Article

Morphophysiological Traits of Gray Mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.) at Different Levels of Soil Salinity

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

Correspondence should be addressed to Mohammad S. Abido; hb.ude.uga@aasdemmahom

Received 10 April 2018; Revised 9 September 2018; Accepted 18 September 2018; Published 24 October 2018

Academic Editor: Qing-Lai Dang

Copyright © 2018 Kholoud Abou Seedo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The traits of gray mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.) at different levels of soil salinity were assessed at three sites along the Tubli Bay coastline of Bahrain. Morphophysiological traits include rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, leaf morphology, and leaf pigment content. Results showed that the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, the intercellular CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the trees of a low salinity site compared to those of high salinity sites. Pairwise correlation between soil electrical conductivity levels and photosynthesis and transpiration rates was very low, implying an adverse effect of low salinity on both processes. However, the dimensions of leaf area and the sclerophylly index were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the trees grown in low salinity site compared to those in more saline conditions. On the other hand, pigments were significantly lower in leaves of trees grown in low salinity site compared to the other two sites. The pairwise correlation between electrical conductivity values and chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoid was 0.51, 0.52, and 0.57 consecutively at (p <0.0001), implying moderate effect of salinity on leaf pigments. This study illustrates the adverse and positive effects of soil salinity on some traits of gray mangrove in Bahrain, which might be considered in ecosystem rehabilitation along other coastlines of the country.