Table 1: Characteristics of the mating system provenances.

Provenance NameSource CountryNumber of FamiliesLatitudeLongitudeAltitude (m)Number of Seedlings Used

ChikhwawaMalawi1016°46′S35°17′E100–30080
MangochiMalawi2014°02′S34°53′E200–60080
NtcheuMalawi1914°39′S34°46′E300–60080
RumphiMalawi2010°59′S33°45′E900–120080
MissiraMali1913°43′N8°27′W35280
MagundeMozambique2024°95′S32°92′E0–20080
MarracueneMozambique1725°58′S32°95′E0–20080
MoambaMozambique2025°55′S32°55′E0–20080
KalimbezaNamibia1517°34′S24°34′E96780
OhangwenaNamibia2017°30′S15°55′E114480
OshikondilingoNamibia1617°35′S15°45′E103080
KalangaSwaziland2026°45′S31°45′E23980
Magamba-TurianiTanzania95°40′S38°12′E53080
Chalinze-BangamoyoTanzania86°55′S38°20′E550
Chigongwe-DodomaTanzania96°04′S35°45′E920
Mandimu-SingidaTanzania35°04′S35°08′E1460
Mialo-KondoaTanzania95°03′S36°21′E1150
Mkata-KilosaTanzania67°22′S37°50′E430
Ubena-BangamoyoTanzania96°11′S38°10′E305
ChomaZambia1417°00′S27°00′E130080
SiavongaZambia1616°30′S28°00′E52080
BiriwiriZimbabwe1519°50′S32°40′E150080
Matebeleland NorthZimbabwe1418°00′S29°00′E99680
Matebeleland SouthZimbabwe1521°00′S32°45′E38880
MudziZimbabwe1516°17′S32°45′E40080
MzarabaniZimbabwe1519°50′S32°40′E60080
NgunduZimbabwe1320°50′S32°50′E45780

Note: All the provenances had the same species (S. birrea ssp. caffra).
Pooled provenance due to low seedling numbers during trial establishment