Exploring Host Genetic Polymorphisms Involved in SARS-CoV Infection Outcomes: Implications for Personalized Medicine in COVID-19Read the full article
International Journal of Genomics publishes papers in all areas of genome-scale analysis, including bioinformatics, clinical and disease genomics, epigenomics, evolutionary and functional genomics, genome engineering, and synthetic genomics.
Chief Editor, Professor Nislow, is currently based at the University of British Columbia as a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Translational Genomics, with a background in yeast genetics and genomics.
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Two Variants in the NOTCH4 and HLA-C Genes Contribute to Familial Clustering of Psoriasis
Psoriasis is a multifactorial immune-mediated skin disease with a strong genetic background. Previous studies reported that psoriasis with a family history (PFH) and sporadic psoriasis (SP) have a distinct manifestation and genetic predisposition. However, the genetic heterogeneity of PFH and SP in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has not been fully elucidated. To explore genetic variants in the MHC region that drive family aggregation of psoriasis, we included a total of 8,127 psoriasis cases and 9,906 healthy controls from Han Chinese and divided psoriasis into two subtypes, PFH () and SP (). Then, we calculated the heritability of PFH and SP and performed a large-scale stratified association analysis. We confirmed that variants in the MHC region collectively explained a higher heritability of PFH (16.8%) than SP (13.3%). Further stratified association analysis illustrated that HLA-C06:02 and NOTCH4:G511S contribute to the family aggregation of psoriasis, and BTNL2:R281K specifically confers risk for SP. HLA-C06:02 and NOTCH4:G511S could partially explain why patients with PFH have a stronger genetic predisposition, more complex phenotypes, and more frequent other autoimmune diseases. The identification of the SP-specific variant BTNL2:R281K revealed that the genetic architecture of SP is not just a subset of PFH.
Dysregulated Expression and Methylation Analysis Identified TLX1NB as a Novel Recurrence Marker in Low-Grade Gliomas
Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are the most common CNS tumors, and the main therapy for LGGs is complete surgical resection, due to its curative effect. However, LGG recurrence occurs frequently. Biomarkers play a crucial role in evaluating the recurrence and prognosis of LGGs. Numerous studies have focused on LGG prognosis. However, the multiomics research investigating the roles played by gene methylation and expression in LGG recurrence remains limited. In this study, we integrated the TCGA and GEO datasets, analyzing RNA and methylation data for recurrence (R) and nonrecurrence (NR) groups. We found a low expression of TLX1NB and high methylation in recurrence patients. Low expression of TLX1NB is associated with poor survival (OS: ). The expression of TLX1NB is likely to play a role in the prognosis of LGG. Therefore, TLX1NB may represent an alternative early biomarker for the recurrence of low-grade gliomas.
Whole Genome 5-Methylcytosine Level Quantification in Cirrhotic HCV-Infected Egyptian Patients with and without Hepatocellular Carcinoma
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism used by cells to control gene expression. DNA methylation is a commonly used epigenetic signaling tool that can hold genes in the “off” position. Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered a major risk for chronic liver impairment. It is the most common leading cause of HCC. The present work is aimed at studying whole genome 5-methylcytosine levels in cirrhotic HCV-infected Egyptian patients. In the present study, 120 Egyptian adults were included. They were divided into two groups: group І (40 apparently healthy control subjects) and group ІІ (80 HCV-infected patients). Furthermore, group II was subdivided into 2 subgroups according to the presence of HCC in HCV-infected subjects. To all studied subjects, the level of 5-mC% was measured in peripheral blood. In the present study, the median of 5-methylcytosine% in the control group (group I) was 2.5, in the HCV group (group IIa) was 2.45, and in the HCC group (group II b) was 2.25. A stepwise decrease in 5-methylcytosine% from the control (group I) toward HCC (group IIb) was observed, taking into consideration that the stepwise global hypomethylation was not statistically significant (). There was a negative correlation between ALT and 5-methylcytosine% (). From this study, we can conclude that global DNA 5-methylcytosine% does not differ in HCV-infected cirrhotic patients and HCC patients when compared to normal controls. Consecutively, we had concluded that there is no impact of 5-methylcytosine% on the development of liver cirrhosis or HCC. Moreover, the negative correlation between 5-methylcytosine% and serum ALT level denotes a trend of decrease in 5-methylcytosine% with more liver damage.
Exploring Heat-Response Mechanisms of MicroRNAs Based on Microarray Data of Rice Post-meiosis Panicle
To explore heat response mechanisms of mircoRNAs (miRNAs) in rice post-meiosis panicle, microarray analysis was performed on RNA isolated from rice post-meiosis panicles which were treated at 40°C for 0 min, 10 min, 20 min, 60 min, and 2 h. By integrating paired differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles, we found that the expression levels of 29 DE-miRNA families were negatively correlated to their 178 DE-target genes. Further analysis showed that the majority of miRNAs in 29 DE-miRNA families resisted the heat stress by downregulating their target genes and a time lag existed between expression of miRNAs and their target genes. Then, GO-Slim classification and functional identification of these 178 target genes showed that (1) miRNAs were mainly involved in a series of basic biological processes even under heat conditions; (2) some miRNAs might play important roles in the heat resistance (such as osa-miR164, osa-miR166, osa-miR169, osa-miR319, osa-miR390, osa-miR395, and osa-miR399); (3) osa-miR172 might play important roles in protecting the rice panicle under the heat stress, but osa-miR437, osa-miR418, osa-miR164, miR156, and miR529 might negatively affect rice fertility and panicle flower; and (4) osa-miR414 might inhibit the flowering gene expression by downregulation of LOC_Os 05g51830 to delay the heading of rice. Finally, a heat-induced miRNA-PPI (protein-protein interaction) network was constructed, and three miRNA coregulatory modules were discovered.
Clinical Evaluation of the Diagnostic Role of MicroRNA-155 in Breast Cancer
Aim. Biochemical markers, including microRNAs (miRs), may facilitate the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. This study was aimed at assessing serum miR-155 expression in patients with breast cancer and receptors. Methods. This case-control study was conducted on 36 patients with breast cancer and 36 healthy individuals. After RNA extraction from the patient’s serum, cDNA was synthesized. The expression of miR-155 was measured using RT-qPCR. Demographic and histochemical data were extracted from patient documents. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results. The mean age of subjects in breast cancer and control groups was and years, respectively. The serum miR-155 expression was higher in the cancer group () compared to the control group (). There was a significant relationship between serum miR-155 expression and the tumor grade (), tumor stage (), and tumor size () of the patients. However, no relationship between miR-155 expression and the presence of lymph node involvement (), HER2 (), Ki-67 (), progesterone receptor (), and estrogen receptors () was found. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC was 0.89 (77.78% sensitivity and 88.89% specificity), and the cutoff was 1.4 (Youden index: 0.6667) for detecting breast cancer. Conclusion. The findings of this study revealed that serum miR-155 may serve as a potential noninvasive molecular biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis and can help predict the grade of the disease.
The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated in Korea (Brassicaceae): An Investigation of Intraspecific Variations of the Chloroplast Genome of Korean A. thaliana
Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. is a model organism of plant molecular biology. More than 1,700 whole genome sequences have been sequenced, but no Korean isolate genomes have been sequenced thus far despite the fact that many A. thaliana isolated in Japan and China have been sequenced. To understand the genetic background of Korean natural A. thaliana (named as 180404IB4), we presented its complete chloroplast genome, which is 154,464 bp long and has four subregions: 85,164 bp of large single copy (LSC) and 17,781 bp of small single copy (SSC) regions are separated by 26,257 bp of inverted repeat (IRs) regions including 130 genes (85 protein-coding genes, eight rRNAs, and 37 tRNAs). Fifty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 14 insertion and deletions (INDELs) are identified between 180404IB4 and Col0. In addition, 101 SSRs and 42 extendedSSRs were identified on the Korean A. thaliana chloroplast genome, indicating a similar number of SSRs on the rest five chloroplast genomes with a preference of sequence variations toward the SSR region. A nucleotide diversity analysis revealed two highly variable regions on A. thaliana chloroplast genomes. Phylogenetic trees with three more chloroplast genomes of East Asian natural isolates show that Korean and Chinese natural isolates are clustered together, whereas two Japanese isolates are not clustered, suggesting the need for additional investigations of the chloroplast genomes of East Asian isolates.