Exceptional Enlargement of the Mitochondrial Genome Results from Distinct Causes in Different Rain Frogs (Anura: Brevicipitidae: Breviceps)Read the full article
International Journal of Genomics publishes papers in all areas of genome-scale analysis, including bioinformatics, clinical and disease genomics, epigenomics, evolutionary and functional genomics, genome engineering, and synthetic genomics.
Chief Editor, Professor Nislow, is currently based at the University of British Columbia as a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Translational Genomics, with a background in yeast genetics and genomics.
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Effects of Inbreeding on Genetic Characteristic, Growth, Survival Rates, and Immune Responses of a New Inbred Line of Exopalaemon carinicauda
The Exopalaemon carinicauda could be a useful crustacean laboratory animal in many research fields. We newly established an inbred line of Exopalaemon carinicauda named EC4 inbred line by brother×sister mating and keeping to 11 generation. Trends in heterozygosity in the process of producing EC4 inbred line were examined through the characterization of polymorphisms based on gene frequencies of SNP and EST-SSR loci. The results demonstrated that the number of alleles (), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), and polymorphism information content (PIC) gradually decreased with the increase of inbreeding generations. The genetic detection results indicated that 9 (29.03%, 9/31) of the SNP loci and 15 (32.61%, 15/46) of the EST-SSR loci were homozygous in 11 generation of EC4 inbred line. The variation of the growth-related traits, the immune responses, and antioxidant status were described in experimental full-sibling inbred populations of E. carinicauda at five levels of inbreeding coefficient (, , , , ) under controlled laboratory conditions. The body weight, body length, and survival rate in EC4 inbred line of all generations were less than the control population. Inbreeding affected the antibacterial activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) which decreased at the eleventh generation of EC4 inbred line. This study demonstrated that inbreeding had a negative effect on the economic traits and immune response, but our inbred line was established successfully until 11 and confirmed by genetic detection using SNP and EST-SSR loci.
Metabonomic-Transcriptome Integration Analysis on Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Purpose. This study is aimed at exploring the potential metabolite/gene biomarkers, as well as the differences between the molecular mechanisms, of osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Transcriptome dataset GSE100786 was downloaded to explore the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between OA samples and RA samples. Meanwhile, metabolomic dataset MTBLS564 was downloaded and preprocessed to obtain metabolites. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) and linear models were used to reveal DEG-metabolite relations. Finally, metabolic pathway enrichment analysis was performed to investigate the differences between the molecular mechanisms of OA and RA. Results. A total of 976 DEGs and 171 metabolites were explored between OA samples and RA samples. The PCA and linear module analysis investigated 186 DEG-metabolite interactions including Glycogenin 1- (GYG1-) asparagine_54, hedgehog acyltransferase- (HHAT-) glucose_70, and TNF receptor-associated factor 3- (TRAF3-) acetoacetate_35. Finally, the KEGG pathway analysis showed that these metabolites were mainly enriched in pathways like gap junction, phagosome, NF-kappa B, and IL-17 pathway. Conclusions. Genes such as HHAT, GYG1, and TRAF3, as well as metabolites including glucose, asparagine, and acetoacetate, might be implicated in the pathogenesis of OA and RA. Metabolites like ethanol and tyrosine might participate differentially in OA and RA progression via the gap junction pathway and phagosome pathway, respectively. TRAF3-acetoacetate interaction may be involved in regulating inflammation in OA and RA by the NF-kappa B and IL-17 pathway.
MicroRNA Biomarker hsa-miR-195-5p for Detecting the Risk of Lung Cancer
Background. Lung cancer is one of the leading diagnosed cancers worldwide, and microRNAs could be used as biomarkers to diagnose lung cancer. hsa-miR-195 has been demonstrated to affect the prognosis of NSCLC (non-small-cell lung cancer) in a previous study. However, the diagnostic value of hsa-miR-195-5p in lung cancer has not been investigated. Methods. To evaluate the ability of hsa-miR-195-5p to diagnose lung cancer, we compared the expression of hsa-miR-195-5p in lung cancer patients, COPD patients, and normal controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of hsa-miR-195-5p. Coexpression network and pathway analysis were carried out to explore the mechanism. Results. We found that hsa-miR-195-5p had lower expression in lung cancer and COPD patients than in normal controls, and the AUC was 0.92 for diagnosing lung cancer. hsa-miR-143 correlated with hsa-miR-195-5p, and by combining these two microRNAs, the AUC was 0.97 for diagnosing lung cancer. Conclusions. hsa-miR-195-5p may act as a biomarker that contributes to the diagnosis of lung cancer and the detection of its high-risk population.
LEA Gene Expression Assessment in Advanced Mutant Rice Genotypes under Drought Stress
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are primarily found in plants stem, roots, and other organs and play significant roles in tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Plants synthesize a discrete set of LEA proteins in response to drought stress. In this study, the expression patterns of LEA genes were investigated in two advanced mutant rice genotypes subjected to the drought stress condition and different physiological traits including photosynthetic rate, leaf chlorophyll content, and photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) which were analyzed to confirm their drought tolerance. Five LEA genes (OsLEA1, OsLEA2, OsLEA3, OsLEA4, and OsLEA5) were used in the evaluation of rice genotypes and were significantly upregulated by more than 4-fold for MR219-4 and MR219-9. The upregulated genes by these two varieties showed high similarity with the drought-tolerant check variety, Aeron1. This indicates that these advanced mutant genotypes have better tolerance to drought stress. The changes in the expression level of LEA genes among the selected rice genotypes under drought stress were further confirmed. Hence, LEA genes could be served as a potential tool for drought tolerance determination in rice. MR219-4 and MR219-9 were found to be promising in breeding for drought tolerance as they offer better physiological adaptation to drought stress.
Comparative Genomic Analysis of Rhodococcus equi: An Insight into Genomic Diversity and Genome Evolution
Rhodococcus equi, a member of the Rhodococcus genus, is a gram-positive pathogenic bacterium. Rhodococcus possesses an open pan-genome that constitutes the basis of its high genomic diversity and allows for adaptation to specific niche conditions and the changing host environments. Our analysis further showed that the core genome of R. equi contributes to the pathogenicity and niche adaptation of R. equi. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the genomes of R. equi shared identical collinearity relationship, and heterogeneity was mainly acquired by means of genomic islands and prophages. Moreover, genomic islands in R. equi were always involved in virulence, resistance, or niche adaptation and possibly working with prophages to cause the majority of genome expansion. These findings provide an insight into the genomic diversity, evolution, and structural variation of R. equi and a valuable resource for functional genomic studies.
A Full-Length Reference Floral Transcriptome of Boehmeria tricuspis Provides Insights into Apomeiosis and Polyploidy
Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance) Makino constitutes a hardy herbaceous or shrubby perennial native to East Asia that includes different ploidy levels and reproductive modes (diplosporous to sexual). Although several apomeiosis-associated genes have been described, the genetic control and molecular mechanisms underlying apomeiosis remain poorly understood. Moreover, the basis of the correlation between polyploidy and apomixis has not yet been clarified. We utilized long-read sequencing to produce a full-length reference floral transcriptome of B. tricuspis. Based on the generated database, gene expression of the female flowers of different ploidy levels and reproductive mode cytotypes was compared. Overall, 1,387 genes related to apomeiosis, 217 genes related to ploidy, and 9 genes associated with both apomixis and ploidy were identified. Gene Ontology analyses of this set of transcripts indicated reproductive genes, especially those related to “cell differentiation” and “cell cycle process,” as significant factors regulating apomeiosis. Furthermore, our results suggested that different expressions of stress response genes might be important in the preparation for apomeiosis transition. In addition, our observations indicated that the expression of apomeiosis may not depend on polyploidy but rather on deregulation of the sexual pathway in B. tricuspis.