Exploring Heat-Response Mechanisms of MicroRNAs Based on Microarray Data of Rice Post-meiosis PanicleRead the full article
International Journal of Genomics publishes papers in all areas of genome-scale analysis, including bioinformatics, clinical and disease genomics, epigenomics, evolutionary and functional genomics, genome engineering, and synthetic genomics.
Chief Editor, Professor Nislow, is currently based at the University of British Columbia as a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Translational Genomics, with a background in yeast genetics and genomics.
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Clinical Evaluation of the Diagnostic Role of MicroRNA-155 in Breast Cancer
Aim. Biochemical markers, including microRNAs (miRs), may facilitate the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. This study was aimed at assessing serum miR-155 expression in patients with breast cancer and receptors. Methods. This case-control study was conducted on 36 patients with breast cancer and 36 healthy individuals. After RNA extraction from the patient’s serum, cDNA was synthesized. The expression of miR-155 was measured using RT-qPCR. Demographic and histochemical data were extracted from patient documents. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results. The mean age of subjects in breast cancer and control groups was and years, respectively. The serum miR-155 expression was higher in the cancer group () compared to the control group (). There was a significant relationship between serum miR-155 expression and the tumor grade (), tumor stage (), and tumor size () of the patients. However, no relationship between miR-155 expression and the presence of lymph node involvement (), HER2 (), Ki-67 (), progesterone receptor (), and estrogen receptors () was found. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC was 0.89 (77.78% sensitivity and 88.89% specificity), and the cutoff was 1.4 (Youden index: 0.6667) for detecting breast cancer. Conclusion. The findings of this study revealed that serum miR-155 may serve as a potential noninvasive molecular biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis and can help predict the grade of the disease.
The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated in Korea (Brassicaceae): An Investigation of Intraspecific Variations of the Chloroplast Genome of Korean A. thaliana
Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. is a model organism of plant molecular biology. More than 1,700 whole genome sequences have been sequenced, but no Korean isolate genomes have been sequenced thus far despite the fact that many A. thaliana isolated in Japan and China have been sequenced. To understand the genetic background of Korean natural A. thaliana (named as 180404IB4), we presented its complete chloroplast genome, which is 154,464 bp long and has four subregions: 85,164 bp of large single copy (LSC) and 17,781 bp of small single copy (SSC) regions are separated by 26,257 bp of inverted repeat (IRs) regions including 130 genes (85 protein-coding genes, eight rRNAs, and 37 tRNAs). Fifty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 14 insertion and deletions (INDELs) are identified between 180404IB4 and Col0. In addition, 101 SSRs and 42 extendedSSRs were identified on the Korean A. thaliana chloroplast genome, indicating a similar number of SSRs on the rest five chloroplast genomes with a preference of sequence variations toward the SSR region. A nucleotide diversity analysis revealed two highly variable regions on A. thaliana chloroplast genomes. Phylogenetic trees with three more chloroplast genomes of East Asian natural isolates show that Korean and Chinese natural isolates are clustered together, whereas two Japanese isolates are not clustered, suggesting the need for additional investigations of the chloroplast genomes of East Asian isolates.
The Necessity of Prenatal Diagnosis by CMA for the Women with NIPS-Positive Results
Objective. To retrospectively analyze the results of prenatal diagnoses of noninvasive prenatal screening- (NIPS) positive pregnant women and discuss whether there is a need for chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). Methods. The study recruited 1,019 NIPS-positive women from two prenatal diagnostic centers. Based on clinical advice, they opted for traditional karyotype analysis or CMA. Single nucleotide polymorphism array testing was performed on a commercial 750K microarray chip (Affymetrix CytoScan 750K Array). Results. Of the NIPS-positive women, 761 (74.7%) accepted the prenatal diagnosis. There were 418 (54.9%) abnormal results, and most (99.5%) were chromosome aneuploidy or structural abnormalities. Only three cases were confirmed as pathogenic copy number variation (CNVs), which were found only with CMA and not by karyotype analysis. Fifteen women were variants of uncertain significance (VUS) CNV. In addition, 300 women selected opted for both karyotype analysis and CMA for prenatal diagnosis: in 275 (91.7%) cases, the results of the two modalities were consistent, while in the remaining 25, they were not. In three cases, the additional positive results obtained with CMA were potentially clinically significant. Conclusions. CMA may not be useful for many women positive for trisomy 21/18/13 based on NIPS results, because traditional karyotype analysis can identify most problems. However, it can yield important additional findings in women positive for fetal sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Global Transcriptome and Correlation Analysis Reveal Cultivar-Specific Molecular Signatures Associated with Fruit Development and Fatty Acid Determination in Camellia oleifera Abel
Background. Oil-tea Camellia is a very important edible oil plant widely distributed in southern China. Tea oil extracted from the oil-tea Camellia seeds is beneficial to health and is considered as a health edible oil. We attempt to identify genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis in an oil-tea Camellia seed kernel, generated a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the seed kernel at different developmental stages, and explore optimal picking time of fruit. Material and Methods. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to detect the content of various fatty acids in samples. Transcriptome analysis was performed to detect gene dynamics and corresponding functions. Results. Multiple phenotypic data were counted in detail, including the oil content, oleic acid content, linoleic acid content, linolenic acid content, fruit weight, fruit height, fruit diameter, single seed weight, seed length, and seed width in different developmental stages, which indicate that a majority of indicators increased with the development of oil-tea Camellia. The transcriptomics was conducted to perform a comprehensive and system-level view on dynamic gene expression networks for different developmental stages. Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) analysis of XL106 (the 6 time points) and XL210 (8 time points) was performed to screen related fatty acid (FA) gene set, from which 1041 candidate genes related to FA were selected in XL106 and 202 related genes were screened in XL210 based on GO and KEGG enrichment. Then, candidate genes and trait dataset were combined to conduct correlation analysis, and 10 genes were found to be strongly connected with several key traits. Conclusions. The multiple phenotypic data revealed the dynamic law of changes during the picking stage. Transcriptomic analysis identified a large number of potential key regulatory factors that can control the oil content of dried kernels, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, fresh seed rate, and kernel-to-seed ratio, thereby providing a new insight into the molecular networks underlying the picking stage of oil-tea Camellia, which provides a theoretical basis for the optimal fruit picking point.
Characterization and Comparative Analysis of RWP-RK Proteins from Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaensis, and Arachis hypogaea
RWP-RK proteins are important factors involved in nitrate response and gametophyte development in plants, and the functions of RWP-RK proteins have been analyzed in many species. However, the characterization of peanut RWP-RK proteins is limited. In this study, we identified 16, 19, and 32 RWP-RK members from Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaensis, and Arachis hypogaea, respectively, and investigated their evolution relationships. The RWP-RK proteins were classified into two groups, RWP-RK domain proteins and NODULE-INCEPTION-like proteins. Chromosomal distributions, gene structures, and conserved motifs of RWP-RK genes were compared among wild and cultivated peanuts. In addition, we identified 12 orthologous gene pairs from the two wild peanut species, 13 from A. duranensis and A. hypogaea, and 13 from A. ipaensis and A. hypogaea. One, one, and seventeen duplicated gene pairs were identified within the A. duranensis, A. ipaensis, and A. hypogaea genomes, respectively. Moreover, different numbers of cis-acting elements in the RWP-RK promoters were found in wild and cultivated species (87 in A. duranensis, 89 in A. ipaensis, and 92 in A. hypogaea), and as a result, many RWP-RK genes showed distinct expression patterns in different tissues. Our study will provide useful information for further functional and evolutionary analysis of the RWP-RK genes.
The Analysis of Estrogen-Degrading and Functional Metabolism Genes in Rhodococcus equi DSSKP-R-001
Estrogen contamination is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problems, causing widespread concern worldwide. Environmental estrogens are mainly derived from human and vertebrate excretion, drugs, and agricultural activities. The use of microorganisms is currently the most economical and effective method for biodegradation of environmental estrogens. Rhodococcus equi DSSKP-R-001 (R-001) has strong estrogen-degrading capabilities. Our study indicated that R-001 can use different types of estrogen as its sole carbon source for growth and metabolism, with final degradation rates above 90%. Transcriptome analysis showed that 720 (E1), 983 (E2), and 845 (EE2) genes were significantly upregulated in the estrogen-treated group compared with the control group, and 270 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated across all treatment groups. These DEGs included ABC transporters; estrogen-degrading genes, including those that perform initial oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions and those that further degrade the resulting substrates into small molecules; and metabolism genes that complete the intracellular transformation and utilization of estrogen metabolites through biological processes such as amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In summary, the biodegradation of estrogens is coordinated by a metabolic network of estrogen-degrading enzymes, transporters, metabolic enzymes, and other coenzymes. In this study, the metabolic mechanisms by which Rhodococcus equi R-001 degrades various estrogens were analyzed for the first time. A new pollutant metabolism system is outlined, providing a starting point for the construction of engineered estrogen-degrading bacteria.