Research Article | Open Access
Yu Yang, Song Qin, Fangqing Zhao, Xiaoyuan Chi, Xiaowen Zhang, "Comparison of Envelope-Related Genes in Unicellular and Filamentous Cyanobacteria", International Journal of Genomics, vol. 2007, Article ID 025751, 10 pages, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/25751
Comparison of Envelope-Related Genes in Unicellular and Filamentous Cyanobacteria
To elucidate the evolution of cyanobacterial envelopes and the relation between gene content and environmental adaptation, cell envelope structures and components of unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria were analyzed in comparative genomics. Hundreds of envelope biogenesis genes were divided into 5 major groups and annotated according to their conserved domains and phylogenetic profiles. Compared to unicellular species, the gene numbers of filamentous cyanobacteria expanded due to genome enlargement effect, but only few gene families amplified disproportionately, such as those encoding waaG and glycosyl transferase 2. Comparison of envelope genes among various species suggested that the significant variance of certain cyanobacterial envelope biogenesis genes should be the response to their environmental adaptation, which might be also related to the emergence of filamentous shapes with some new functions.
- A. H. Knoll, “A new molecular window on early life,” Science, vol. 285, no. 5430, pp. 1025–1026, 1999.
- T. J. Beveridge, “Mechanism of gram variability in select bacteria,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 1609–1620, 1990.
- E. Hoiczyk and A. Hansel, “Cyanobacterial cell walls: news from an unusual prokaryotic envelope,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 182, no. 5, pp. 1191–1199, 2000.
- C. M. Resch and J. Gibson, “Isolation of the carotenoid-containing cell wall of three unicellular cyanobacteria,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 345–350, 1983.
- M. Schrader, G. Drews, and J. Weckesser, “Chemical analyses on cell wall constituents of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC6716,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 37–40, 1981.
- D. R. Nobles, D. K. Romanovicz, and R. M. Brown Jr., “Cellulose in cyanobacteria. Origin of vascular plant cellulose synthase?” Plant Physiology, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 529–542, 2001.
- J. W. Schopf, “Microfossils of the early archean apex chert: new evidence of the antiquity of life,” Science, vol. 260, no. 5108, pp. 640–646, 1993.
- D. Kaiser, “Build a multicellular organism,” Annual Review of Genetics, vol. 35, pp. 103–123, 2001.
- F. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. Liang, J. Wu, Q. Bao, and S. Qin, “Genome-wide analysis of restriction-modification system in unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria,” Physiological Genomics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 181–190, 2006.
- V. M. Markowitz, F. Korzeniewski, K. Palaniappan et al., “The integrated microbial genomes (IMG) system,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 34, Database issue, pp. D344–D348, 2006.
- R. L. Tatusov, M. Y. Galperin, D. A. Natale, and E. V. Koonin, “The COG database: a tool for genome-scale analysis of protein functions and evolution,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 33–36, 2000.
- R. L. Tatusov, E. V. Koonin, and D. J. Lipman, “A genomic perspective on protein families,” Science, vol. 278, no. 5338, pp. 631–637, 1997.
- E. Quevillon, V. Silventoinen, S. Pillai et al., “InterProScan: protein domains identifier,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 33, Web Server issue, pp. W116–W120, 2005.
- S. F. Altschul, T. L. Madden, A. A. Schäffer et al., “Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 3389–3402, 1997.
- A. Marchler-Bauer and S. H. Bryant, “CD-Search: protein domain annotations on the fly,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 32, Web Server issue, pp. W327–W331, 2004.
- S. Kumar, K. Tamura, and M. Nei, “MEGA3: integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment,” Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 150–163, 2004.
- N. Saitou and M. Nei, “The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 406–425, 1987.
- J. Felsenstein, “Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap,” Evolution, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 783–791, 1985.
- A. J. Dijkstra and W. Keck, “Peptidoglycan as a barrier to transenvelope transport,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 178, no. 19, pp. 5555–5562, 1996.
- F. Leganés, A. Blanco-Rivero, F. Fernández-Piñas et al., “Wide variation in the cyanobacterial complement of presumptive penicillin-binding proteins,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 184, no. 4, pp. 234–248, 2005.
- C. P. Wolk, “Heterocyst formation,” Annual Review of Genetics, vol. 30, pp. 59–78, 1996.
- G. Huang, Q. Fan, S. Lechno-Yossef et al., “Clustered genes required for the synthesis of heterocyst envelope polysaccharide in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 187, no. 3, pp. 1114–1123, 2005.
- J. A. Yethon, E. Vinogradov, M. B. Perry, and C. Whitfield, “Mutation of the lipopolysaccharide core glycosyltransferase encoded by waaG destabilizes the outer membrane of Escherichia coli by interfering with core phosphorylation,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 182, no. 19, pp. 5620–5623, 2000.
- I. M. Saxena, R. M. Brown Jr., and T. Dandekar, “Structure-function characterization of cellulose synthase: relationship to other glycosyltransferases,” Phytochemistry, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1135–1148, 2001.
- G. H. H. Borner, D. J. Sherrier, T. J. Stevens, I. T. Arkin, and P. Dupree, “Prediction of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis. A genomic analysis,” Plant Physiology, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 486–499, 2002.
- S. Andersson-Gunner?s, E. J. Mellerowicz, J. Love et al., “Biosynthesis of cellulose-enriched tension wood in Populus: global analysis of transcripts and metabolites identifies biochemical and developmental regulators in secondary wall biosynthesis,” Plant Journal, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 144–165, 2006.
- C. Whitfield, “Biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide O antigens,” Trends in Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 178–185, 1995.
- E. Frirdich and C. Whitfield, “Lipopolysaccharide inner core oligosaccharide structure and outer membrane stability in human pathogens belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 133–144, 2005.
- W.-R. Scheible and M. Pauly, “Glycosyltransferases and cell wall biosynthesis: novel players and insights,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 285–295, 2004.
- R. M. Brown Jr., “Cellulose structure and biosynthesis: what is in store for the 21st century?” Journal of Polymer Science Part A, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 487–495, 2004.
- M. Perego, P. Glaser, A. Minutello, M. A. Strauch, K. Leopold, and W. Fischer, “Incorporation of D-alanine into lipoteichoic acid and wall teichoic acid in Bacillus subtilis. Identification of genes and regulation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 270, no. 26, pp. 15598–15606, 1995.
Copyright © 2007 Yu Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.