Figure 5: Impacts of exon-disrupting mutations on the structure of the X-linked protocadherin-11 gene in chimpanzees (I) and humans (II): A frameshift mutation results in the deletion of N-terminal 29-residue signal peptides in the X-linked protocadherin-11 proteins in chimpanzee and human genomes (III). The dotted box indicates the absence of Y-linked protocadherin-11 in chimpanzees. Signal peptide was predicted through SignalP 3.0 Server (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/SignalP/) [46].