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International Journal of Genomics
Volume 2013, Article ID 464720, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/464720
Review Article

Genome Stability Pathways in Head and Neck Cancers

1University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
2Cancer and Ageing Research Program, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation at the Translational Research Institute, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
3Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Received 7 June 2013; Revised 19 September 2013; Accepted 20 September 2013

Academic Editor: Margarita Hadzopoulou-Cladaras

Copyright © 2013 Glenn Jenkins et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Genomic instability underlies the transformation of host cells toward malignancy, promotes development of invasion and metastasis and shapes the response of established cancer to treatment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of genomic stability in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), with an emphasis on DNA repair pathways. HNSCC is characterized by distinct profiles in genome stability between similarly staged cancers that are reflected in risk, treatment response and outcomes. Defective DNA repair generates chromosomal derangement that can cause subsequent alterations in gene expression, and is a hallmark of progression toward carcinoma. Variable functionality of an increasing spectrum of repair gene polymorphisms is associated with increased cancer risk, while aetiological factors such as human papillomavirus, tobacco and alcohol induce significantly different behaviour in induced malignancy, underpinned by differences in genomic stability. Targeted inhibition of signalling receptors has proven to be a clinically-validated therapy, and protein expression of other DNA repair and signalling molecules associated with cancer behaviour could potentially provide a more refined clinical model for prognosis and treatment prediction. Development and expansion of current genomic stability models is furthering our understanding of HNSCC pathophysiology and uncovering new, promising treatment strategies.