International Journal of Genomics / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Pharmacogenomics and Opioid Analgesics: Clinical Implications

Table 1

Case reports providing evidence on the impact of polymorphisms of metabolizing enzymes on the safety of codeine.

AuthorMetabolizing enzymePolymorphism Adverse event

Gasche et al., 2004 [21]CYP2D6 CYP2D61 × 3, in a patient suffering from renal insufficiency and cotreated with CYP3A4 inhibitorsLife-threatening intoxication
Voronov et al., 2007 [23]CYP2D6CYP2D6 × 2Apnea and brain injury
Madadi et al., 2007 [24]CYP2D6CYP2D62A and CYP2D62 × 2Death of the breastfed 13-day-old boy
Ciszkowski et al., 2009 [22]CYP2D6CYP2D61 × NDeath due to respiratory arrest
Kelly et al., 2012 [26]CYP2D6 CYP2D61 × NTwo deaths, one case of severe respiratory depression

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