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International Journal of Genomics
Volume 2017, Article ID 1676874, 5 pages
Research Article

Case Study of Somaclonal Variation in Resistance Genes Mlo and Pme3 in Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Induced by Nanoparticles

1Department of Biotechnology, Daugavpils University, Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, Laboratory of Genomics and Biotechnology, Parades Street 1A, Daugavpils LV-5401, Latvia
2Department of Technology, Daugavpils University, Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, G. Liberts’ Center of Innovative Microscopy, Parades street 1A, Daugavpils LV-5401, Latvia

Correspondence should be addressed to Ilona Mickeviča; vl.ud@acivekcim.anoli

Received 19 December 2016; Revised 31 January 2017; Accepted 7 February 2017; Published 23 February 2017

Academic Editor: Ferenc Olasz

Copyright © 2017 Inese Kokina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nanoparticles influence on genome is investigated worldwide. The appearance of somaclonal variation is a cause of great concern for any micropropagation system. Somaclonal variation describes the tissue-culture-induced phenotypic and genotypic variations. This paper shows the results of somaclonal variation in two resistance genes pectin methylesterase and Mlo-like protein in all tissue culture development stages, as donor plant, calluses, and regenerants of Linum usitatissimum induced by gold and silver nanoparticles. In this paper, it was essential to obtain DNA material from all tissue culture development stages from one donor plant to record changes in each nucleotide sequence. Gene region specific primers were developed for resistance genes such as Mlo and Pme3 to define the genetic variability in tissue culture of L. usitatissimum. In recent years, utilization of gold and silver nanoparticles in tissue culture is increased and the mechanisms of changes in genome induced by nanoparticles still remain unclear. Obtained data show the somaclonal variation increase in calluses obtained from one donor plant and grown on medium supplemented by gold nanoparticles (Mlo ; Pme3 ) or silver nanoparticles (Mlo ; Pme3 ) and decrease in regenerants. Morphological parameters of calluses showed a number of differences between each investigated culture group.