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International Journal of Genomics
Volume 2018, Article ID 1465348, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1465348
Review Article

Endometriosis Malignant Transformation: Epigenetics as a Probable Mechanism in Ovarian Tumorigenesis

The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin, Changchun 130041, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Tianmin Xu; moc.621@nimnaitux

Received 27 December 2017; Accepted 1 March 2018; Published 27 March 2018

Academic Editor: Changwon Park

Copyright © 2018 Jiaxing He et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Endometriosis, defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is a chronic, hormone-dependent gynecologic disease affecting millions of women across the world, with symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria, and subfertility. In addition, there is well-established evidence that, although endometriosis is considered benign, it is associated with an increased risk of malignant transformation, with the involvement of various mechanisms of development. More and more evidence reveals an important contribution of epigenetic modification not only in endometriosis but also in mechanisms of endometriosis malignant transformation, including DNA methylation and demethylation, histone modifications, and miRNA aberrant expressions. In this present review, we mainly summarize the research progress about the current knowledge regarding the epigenetic modifications of the relations between endometriosis malignant transformation and ovarian cancer in an effort to identify some risk factors probably associated with ectopic endometrium transformation.