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Aquifer Vulnerability: Its Protection and Management—A Case Study in Pangkalpinang City, Indonesia
Increased anthropogenic activity in urban areas has exacerbated the vulnerability of groundwater resources. The AVI, GOD, SINTACS, and DRASTIC methods were used to analyze groundwater vulnerability in Pangkalpinang City. Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding was used to determine the lithology and aquifer configuration in the study area. There are three vulnerability index areas in the city of Pangkalpinang. Low levels of aquifer vulnerability were generally found in the southeastern and northwestern parts of the study area, whereas high levels of aquifer vulnerability were discovered in the northern and southern parts of the study area. Areas with low aquifer vulnerability levels generally have low hydraulic conductivity values on the protective layer. In these areas, groundwater extraction is possible with a reasonable extraction pattern. Industrial areas can also be built by considering environmental aspects. In an area with high-level aquifer vulnerability, groundwater pollution must be considerably managed. The areas should not be designated for industrial areas and excess groundwater extraction.
Seismic Velocity Structure in the Area of the 2007, Mw 8.0, Pisco-Peru Earthquake: Implications for the Mechanics of Subduction in the Vicinity of the Nazca Ridge
In this study, we present a velocity model for the area of the 2007 Pisco-Peru earthquake () obtained using a double-difference tomography algorithm that considers aftershocks acquired for 6 months. The studied area is particularly interesting because it lies on the northern edge of the Nazca Ridge, in which the subduction of a large bathymetric structure is the origin of geomorphological features of the central coast of Peru. Relocated seismicity is used to infer the geometry of the subduction slab on the northern flank of the Nazca Ridge. The results prove that the geometry is continuous but convex because of the subduction of the ridge, thereby explaining the high uplift rates observed in this area. Our inferred distribution of seismicity agrees with both the coseismic and postseismic slip distributions.
foF2 Seasonal Asymmetry Diurnal Variation Study during Very Quiet Geomagnetic Activity at Dakar Station
This paper aims to study the foF2 seasonal asymmetry diurnal variation at Dakar station from 1976 to 1995. We show that equinoctial asymmetry is less pronounced and somewhere is absent throughout 21 and 22 solar cycles. The absence of equinoctial asymmetry may be due to Russell-McPherron mechanism and the vertical drift . The solstice anomaly or annual anomaly is always observed throughout both 21 and 22 solar cycles as measured at Dakar ionosonde. The maximum negative value of σfoF2, fairly equal to -65%, is observed during the decreasing phase at solstice time; this value appeared usually at 0200 LT except during the maximum phase during which it is observed at 2300 LT. The maximum positive value, fairly equal to +94%, is observed at 0600 LT during solar minimum at solstice time. This annual asymmetry may be due to neutral composition asymmetric variation and solar radiation annual asymmetry with the solstice time. The semiannual asymmetry is also observed during all solar cycle phases. The maximum positive value (+73%) is observed at 2300 LT during solar maximum, and its maximum negative (-12%) is observed during the increasing phase. We established, as the case of annual asymmetry, that this asymmetry could not be explained by the asymmetry in vertical velocity phenomenon but by the axial mechanism, the “thermospheric spoon” mechanism, and the seasonally varying eddy mixing phenomenon.
Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis Associated with the 2010 Eruption of Merapi Volcano Using Temporal Variations of Randomness and Background Noise
We present the combination of permutation entropy (PE) and power spectral density (PSD) analysis on continuous seismic data recorded by short-period seismic stations during the 2010 Merapi volcano eruption. The calculation of PE aims at characterizing the randomness level in seismic noise, while the PSD parameters use to detect the background noise level in various frequency bands. It was previously observed that a significant reduction of randomness before the volcano eruption could be indicated as one of the short-term precursors due to the lack of high frequencies (>1 Hz) in the noise wave-field caused by high absorption losses as the hot magma uprises to the upper crust. The results show no significant reduction in signal randomness before the eruption series. The characteristic of events during the preeruptive period and the crisis tends to be chaotic (PE in the range 0.9 to 1). Further calculations show that the standard deviation in PE decreased in four days before the first eruption onset on 26 October. PE was stable at the highest values (very close to 1) and gradually returned to the previous fluctuation after the eruption onset. The level of background noise in the low- and high-frequency bands appeared to have the same tendency. The two main eruptions correspond to the two highest peaks of noise levels.
Typology of Sounding Curves and Lithological 1D Models of Mineral Prospecting and Groundwater Survey within Crystalline Basement Rocks in the East of Cameroon (Central Africa) Using Electrical Resistivity Method and Koefoed Computation Method
Resistivity method using seventy-sixth (976) Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings along forty-one (41) profiles are conducted in the Batouri and Ngoura subdivisions, East region of Cameroon, to investigate the subsurface layering, mineral potential, and groundwater resource characteristics. Results of quantitative and qualitative interpretation of data using Koefoed computation method reveal two to five layers having geometrical and electrical characteristics of geological layer models: topsoil (; ), lateritic soils (; ); conductive layer (; ); fractured/weathered granite (; ); clayey layer (; (dry) Ω.m); and fresh granites (). From the qualitative interpretation of VES curves, the subsurface layering is depicted by nine (09) types of sounding curves (G, H, A, QH, KH, HK, HA, HKH, and KHK) characterizing the vertical changes and the typology of sounding curves in the East Cameroon crystalline basements. The lithology of the subsurface is dominated (more than 80%) by geoelectrical and lithological 1D models derived by the H, QH, KH, HK, HA, HKH, and KHK curve types. These models are characterized by the presence of conductive layers and fractured/weathered granites derived from tectonic activities of the region. Also, the resistivity method (VES) applied in this study bring information about variation of the resistivity with depth, geological structures, fractures, and rupture zones in the underground until 120 m depth. These abovementioned information reveal proper hydrogeological and mining conditions for an efficient evaluation of the mineral potential and groundwater resources.
A Feasibility Study on Monitoring Crustal Structure Variations by Direct Comparison of Surface Wave Dispersion Curves from Ambient Seismic Noise
This work assesses the feasibility of the direct use of surface-wave dispersion curves from seismic ambient noise to gain insight into the crustal structure of Bransfield Strait and detect seasonal seismic velocity changes. We cross-correlated four years of vertical component ambient noise data recorded by a seismic array in West Antarctica. To estimate fundamental mode Rayleigh wave Green’s functions, the correlations are computed in 4-hr segments, stacked over 1-year time windows and moving windows of 3 months. Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves are then measured on two spectral bands—primary (10–30 s) and secondary (5–10 s) microseisms—using frequency-time analysis. We analyze the temporal evolution of seismic velocity by comparing dispersion curves for the successive annual and 3-month correlation stacks. Our main assumption was that the Green’s functions from the cross-correlations, and thus the dispersion curves, remain invariant if the crustal structure remains unchanged. Maximum amplitudes of secondary microseisms were observed during local winter when the Southern Ocean experiences winter storms. The Rayleigh wave group velocity ranges between 2.1 and 3.7 km/s, considering our period range studied. Interannual velocity variations are not much evident. We observe a slight velocity decrease in summer and increase in winter, which could be attributed to the pressure melting of ice and an increase in ice mass, respectively. The velocity anomalies observed within the crust and upper mantle structure correlate with the major crustal and upper mantle features known from previous studies in the area. Our results demonstrate that the direct comparison of surface wave dispersion curves extracted from ambient noise might be a useful tool in monitoring crustal structure variations.