Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Geophysics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 387175, 13 pages
Research Article

Imaging 3D Sea Surfaces from 3D Dual-Sensor Towed Streamer Data

1Petroleum Geo-Services, Lysaker, 1325 Oslo, Norway
2University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway

Received 22 January 2013; Accepted 18 March 2013

Academic Editor: Joerg Schleicher

Copyright © 2013 Okwudili C. Orji et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


3D realistic sea surface imaging from 3D dual-sensor towed streamer data is presented. The technique is based on separating data acquired by collocated dual-sensors into up-going and down-going wavefields. Subsequently, these wavefields are extrapolated upwards in order to image the sea surface. This approach has previously been demonstrated using 2D data examples. Here, the focus is on 3D data. Controlled 3D data based on the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz algorithm is generated, and the 3D sea surface imaging technique is applied. For coarsely spaced streamers from 3D field data, the technique is applied streamerwise (i.e., 2D wavefield separation, extrapolation, and imaging). In the latter case, the resulting sea surface profiles corresponding to each time frame are interpolated to demonstrate that the main sea surface characteristics are preserved, and artefacts due to 2D processing of 3D data are mainly limited to areas corresponding to large angles of incidence. Time-varying sea surfaces from two different 3D field data are imaged. The data examples were acquired under different weather conditions. The imaged sea surfaces show realistic wave heights, and their spectra suggest plausible speeds and directions.