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International Journal of Geophysics
Volume 2013, Article ID 398956, 12 pages
Research Article

Metrological Analysis of Geopotential Gravity Field for Harbor Waterside Management and Water Quality Control

1OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale), ST-COPS, Via Carducci 120, 19126 La Spezia, Italy
2Università degli Studi di Genova, DITEN, Via all'Opera Pia 11A, 16145 Genova, Italy
3Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sez. Roma 2, Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma, Italy

Received 24 January 2013; Accepted 22 April 2013

Academic Editor: Michela Giustiniani

Copyright © 2013 Osvaldo Faggioni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Sea level oscillations are the superposition of many contributions. In particular, tide is a sea level up-down water motion basically depending on three different phenomena: the Earth-Moon-Sun gravitational relationship, the water surface fluid reaction to atmospheric meteorological dynamic, and the Newtonian vertical adjustment of the sea surface due to atmospheric pressure variations. The first tide component (astrotide) is periodic and well known in all points of the Earth surface; the second one is directly related to the meteorological phenomenon, and then it is foreseeable; the Newtonian component, on the contrary, is not readily predictable by a general hydrostatic law, because the factor that represents the Newtonian transfer (from the atmospheric weight to the consequent sea level) is variable in each harbor area. The analysis of the gravity field permits to forecast the sea level variation due to meteorological tide events, and its metrological analysis highlights a compensation in the inverse hydrobarometric factor to be taken into account to correctly compensate atmospheric pressure variations in semibinding basins. This phenomenon has several consequences in Harbor Waterside management and in water quality control as shown by the reported case studies and introduces a new reference parameter: the so-called Water 1000.