Low Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OHD) and Hepatic Encephalopathy in HCV-Related Liver CirrhosisRead the full article
International Journal of Hepatology publishes research related to medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology and management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree and pancreas.
International Journal of Hepatology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Antioxidant Effects of Eugenol on Oxidative Stress Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Islets of Langerhans Isolated from Male Mouse
Background. The antioxidant system in islets of Langerhans is weak, which can lead to diabetes. Meanwhile, the main component of cloves that produce antioxidant effects is eugenol. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant effect of eugenol on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in islets of Langerhans isolated from the male mice. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (20-25 g) were prepared. The collagenase digestion method was used for dissecting the islets of Langerhans. H2O2 50 μM was administered for 30 min to induce oxidative stress, with 50, 100, and 200 μM of eugenol employed for 2 hours before the administration of H2O2. The experimental groups were divided into five groups: (control, H2O2, and H2O2+eugenol 50, 100, and 200 μM). Finally, the islet’s lipid peroxidation and antioxidants levels were measured by the ELISA assay method. Results. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) increased in all groups when compared to the control (). MDA diminished in H2O2+eugenol 50, 100, and 200 μM () groups versus the H2O2. TAC was elevated when eugenol 50, 100, and 200 μM was administered in oxidative stress-induced islets (). Also, CAT increased in the H2O2+eugenol 50 () group in comparison with the H2O2 group. Conclusions. In conclusion, H2O2 induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the islets, and administration of eugenol recovered these alterations by raising the level of TAC and CAT, while reducing MDA as a lipid peroxidation biomarker.
Prognostic Factors of Radiofrequency Ablation plus Systemic Chemotherapy for Unresectable Colorectal Cancer with Liver Metastasis
Introduction. Survival outcomes in patients with unresectable colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with systemic chemotherapy and correlation with potential prognostic factors were investigated. Material and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 61 CRC patients with unresectable liver metastasis who underwent liver tumor-directed percutaneous RFA combined with conventional systemic chemotherapy between October 2013 and September 2018. Survival analyses were conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to characterize differences in the median survival time and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival rates of subgroups to identify prognostic factors. Results. Median overall survival and progression-free survival of all patients were 32 and 14 months, respectively. The cumulative survival rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-years were 93.2%; 44.5%, and 38.2%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that pre-RFA serum CEA levels, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, number of liver lesions, the size of the largest lesion, and the total lesion size were prognostic factors. However, multivariate analysis demonstrated that only the number of liver lesions and the size of the largest lesion were independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion. RFA plus systemic chemotherapy provides an encouraging survival outcome for patients with unresectable CRC liver metastasis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the number and size of liver metastatic lesions are independent prognostic factors for survival.
The High Prevalence of Negative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) among Pregnant Women in Bandung, Indonesia: A Community-Based Study
Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a disease that creates a high global burden by affecting approximately 3.5% of the total world population. The main transmission of this disease is from mother to child (MTCT). HBV vaccination program was already initiated in Indonesia in 1987. However, after three decades, the HBV infection prevalence stays stagnant. This study aimed to explore the seroprevalence of HBV markers and the attributable risk factors of pregnant women at risk of transmitting HBV to their offspring. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted on pregnant women from primary midwifery and obstetric clinics across Bandung, Indonesia, to assess the HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs serological markers. Questionnaire-based interviews were used to obtain the sociodemographic determinants. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association of each determinant factor to positive HBsAg or negative anti-HBs as a dependent variable, which was then reported as odds ratios (OR). Results. A total of 196 subjects were recruited with 12/196 (6.1%) of them were positive HBsAg. After exclusions of those with positive HBsAg and anti-HBc, 24/175 (13.7%) women were isolated as positive anti-HBs, leaving 151/175 (86.3%) women with negative anti-HBs who were susceptible to HBV infection. Low body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2 was a risk factor for positive HBsAg with (95% CI 1.466-23.34), . Nevertheless, no significant determinant factor was associated with negative anti-HBs. Conclusion. Most pregnant women in Bandung, Indonesia, are susceptible to HBV infection, as marked by the negative anti-HBs status.
Hepatocyte and Islet Cell Cotransplantation on Poly-L-Lactide Matrix for the Treatment of Liver Cirrhosis
The human autologous hepatocyte matrix implant is a promising alternative procedure to counter liver damage. We assessed the outcome of human hepatocytes isolation from cirrhotic liver compared to the clinical and histological scores of disease severity. A total of 11 patients with various clinical scores (CTP and MELD) and histological score (Metavir, fibrosis) of liver cirrhosis were included in the hepatocyte matrix implant clinical phase I study. The liver segment and pancreatic tissue were harvested from each patient, and hepatocytes and cells of islets of Langerhans were isolated. The freshly isolated human hepatocytes were coseeded with the islet cells onto poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds, cultured, and transplanted back into the patient. Human hepatocytes were isolated from 11 cirrhotic liver specimens with a resulting yield of 1.4 ± 0.5 × 106 cells per gram of the liver specimen and a viability rate of 52 ± 13%. It was found that the yield and viability of the liver cells were not correlated with the clinical and histological scores of the liver cirrhosis. A correlation was found between the hepatocyte yield obtained and the average number of hepatocytes counted in 10 microscopic fields of view. More viable cells were obtained from cirrhotic livers caused by chronic hepatitis B as compared to chronic hepatitis C in the same MELD score range. There was no correlation between the clinical and histological disease severity scores of liver cirrhosis and the outcome of hepatocytes isolation. It seems that the yield could depend on the type of hepatitis underlying the cirrhotic tissue. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov with the study identifier: NCT01335568.
Endothelial Dysfunction, a Marker of Atherosclerosis, Is Independent of Metabolic Syndrome in NAFLD Patients
Background. The study was designed to assess cardiovascular risk factors flow-mediated dilatation % (FMD%) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in NAFLD. Methods. 126 NAFLD subjects and 31 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) controls were studied. Measuring carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the flow-mediated dilatation % (FMD%) by brachial artery Doppler ultrasound were used to assess atherosclerosis. The risk of cardiac events at 10 years (ROCE 10) was estimated by the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster Study (PROCAM) score. Results. 58 of 126 NAFLD have coexistent metabolic syndrome. Mean CIMT was among NAFLD with MS, among NAFLD without MS, and in controls CHB patients. FMD% in NAFLD with MS was , but was in NAFLD without MS and in controls. PROCAM score of NAFLD with MS was while in NAFLD without MS was . Controls had a PROCAM score of . ROCE 10 in NAFLD with MS was while NAFLD without MS was . Controls have a ROCE 10 of . Post hoc analysis showed CIMT was dependent upon MS while FMD% was different between all subgroups hence independent of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. The markers of endothelial dysfunction are significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than controls.
Hepatocellular Expression of SIRT1 and Its Effect on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression: A Future Therapeutic Perspective
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive primary hepatic malignancy with a significant morbidity and mortality rate. Although chemotherapy along with surgical incision is believed to be an effective therapeutic approach, to date recurrence is being lifted a major concern. Thus, identifying another best therapeutic approach is becoming the main aim of physicians and scholars. In support of this, recently, several studies reported a significant observation of Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) overexpression in the malignant tumor cells, including HCC. As a result, they believed that overexpression of SIRT1 may have an effect on the progression of HCC by targeting growth and/or apoptotic controlling transcriptional factors/signaling pathways. Similarly, other reports confirmed that SIRT1 inhibition had a direct or indirect role in the control of tumor cell growth and metastasis. Therefore, inhibiting the expression and activity of SIRT1 might have a therapeutic effect to handle HCC. However, there are a limited number of reviews regarding the issue, and here, we summarized hepatocellular expression of SIRT1 and its role on HCC progression.