Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides Difficile Infection in Patients with Chronic Liver DiseaseRead the full article
International Journal of Hepatology publishes research related to medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology and management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree and pancreas.
International Journal of Hepatology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Avatrombopag, an Alternate Treatment Option to Reduce Platelet Transfusions in Patients with Thrombocytopenia and Chronic Liver Disease-Integrated Analyses of 2 Phase 3 Studies
Aims. Thrombocytopenia complicates the management of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) undergoing invasive procedures with a bleeding risk. Until recently, prophylactic platelet transfusion was the only treatment option, but has significant safety and efficacy limitations. Phase 3 data demonstrated the superiority of avatrombopag to placebo in reducing platelet transfusions for bleeding, supporting its recent approval. Methods. Integrated analyses of pooled data () from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies assessed the original efficacy endpoints. Additional analyses included subgroup analyses, alternate Baseline platelet count definitions, and another efficacy endpoint. Results. Avatrombopag was superior to placebo in increasing patients not requiring a platelet transfusion or rescue procedure, those achieving a platelet count ≥50 × 109/L on Procedure Day, and the change in platelet counts from Baseline. The avatrombopag treatment effect was consistently positive across clinically important disease and Baseline clinical characteristic subgroups, and using alternate Baseline platelet count cohort definitions. Similarly, more avatrombopag-treated patients achieved ≥50 × 109/L platelets with an increase of ≥20 × 109/L from Baseline. The incidence and severity of adverse events were similar between avatrombopag and placebo. Further, safety data demonstrated a low risk for thromboembolic events and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion. These integrated analyses confirmed the superiority of avatrombopag to placebo in reducing platelet transfusions or rescue procedures for bleeding in patients with thrombocytopenia and CLD scheduled to undergo an invasive procedure, and its tolerable safety profile. Importantly, these data warrant reconsideration of clinical decision making regarding the need to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD. This trial was registered with NCT01972529 and NCT01976104.
Comparative Study of Protective Effect of Cimetidine and Verapamil on Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice
Paracetamol, chemically known as acetaminophen, if taken in higher doses has hepatotoxic potential. Cimetidine by inhibiting the cytochromal enzymes and reducing the production of the toxic metabolite can reduce the hepatotoxic potential while Verapamil can act as a hepatoprotective by maintaining calcium homeostasis. The present study was conducted to study the hepatoprotective activity of Cimetidine and Verapamil against the toxicity induced by paracetamol. In addition to the group receiving only distilled water or 300 mg/kg paracetamol additional groups were added treated with 150 mg/kg Cimetidine and Verapamil alone or both. The Liver function tests and histopathology revealed hepatotoxicity in the group receiving paracetamol (PCM) while normal parameters were observed in the groups receiving Cimetidine and Verapamil. Our results strongly suggested that Cimetidine and Verapamil possess hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards Hepatitis B Virus among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious public health concern worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the major mode in endemic areas, including Ethiopia, where little is known about pregnant women’s knowledge, attitudes, and practice towards HBV infection and MTCT. Therefore, the study is aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards HBV among pregnant women attending antenatal care. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2018, at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. A total of 354 pregnant women were selected by systematic random sampling and included in this study. KAP of participants on HBV MTCT was assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 software. Result. The total response rate was 100% (354/354). Out of the 354 participants, 73.4% were within the poor knowledge. Only 18.9% of the respondents know HBV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy. Less than half (43.8) of the participants think that they will never be infected with HBV, and 47.7% of them go to traditional healers when they have symptoms of HBV. Majority of the respondents (85.87%) had never screened for HBV, and only 28.5% of the participants believed that hepatitis B can cause liver cancer. In multivariable analysis, residence, income, and educational level were associated with mean score knowledge and attitude. Conclusions. Knowledge about HBV among pregnant women was found to be poor, and their attitude and practice were also limited. Therefore, extensive health education program should be given to the pregnant women to increase their awareness towards HBV infection. All pregnant women should be screened for HBV as part of ANC follow-up.
Impact of Treatment with Direct Acting Antiviral Drugs on Glycemic Control in Patients with Hepatitis C and Diabetes Mellitus
Aim. To assess the effect of treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) on glycemic control in patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods. We performed a retrospective case-control study in a viral hepatitis ambulatory clinic in Shreveport, Louisiana, during the period 11/01/2014 to 12/31/2017. All the clinic patient ages 18 years and above with treatment-naïve/biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis C and DM () who were eligible for treatment were included in the study. Of 118 such patients, 59 were treated with oral DAAs for 8-12 weeks with the goal of achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR). A control group of 59 patients did not receive treatment for their hepatitis C and was followed in the clinic. Patients in the control group did not receive treatment either due to insurance issues or refusal of hepatitis C treatment. Results. Fifty-five of the 59 patients treated with DAAs (93%) achieved a SVR. Six months after treatment completion, their HbA1C level had decreased by (). Four of the 59 patients treated with DAAs did not achieve a SVR. Their mean HbA1C 6 months after treatment completion had increased by . Furthermore, there was no improvement in HbA1C levels over time in the untreated group (mean HbA1C increase, ; vs. the treatment group, which had a mean HbA1C decrease of ). Conclusion. This controlled study demonstrated that treatment of chronic hepatitis C with DAAs results in statistically significant and meaningful reductions in hemoglobin A1C levels in patients with coexisting diabetic mellitus if a SVR is achieved.
Dilatation Therapy and Demographic Characteristics Significantly Influence the Amount of Propofol for Therapeutic Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography
Background and Study Aims. Patients undergoing therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) may require different amounts of sedative agents depending on demographic characteristics, indication of ERC, and/or endoscopic intervention. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed all patients undergoing therapeutic ERC from 2008 – 2014 who received deep sedation with propofol ± midazolam. Results. A total of 2448 ERC procedures were performed in 781 patients. The cumulative per procedure propofol dose in the different groups was as follows: PSC 479 mg (±256), bile duct stones 356 mg (±187), benign stenosis/cholestasis 395 mg (±228), malignant stenosis 401 mg (±283), and postliver transplant complications 391 mg (±223) (p < 0.05). Multivariable analysis showed that dilatation therapy (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.001), duration of the intervention (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.001), gender (p = 0.001), platelet count (p = 0.003), and bilirubin (p = 0.043) influence independently the propofol consumption. Conclusions. Demographic characteristics and endoscopic interventions have a distinct influence on the amount of sedation required for therapeutic ERC. Although the sedation-associated complication rate is low optimization of sedative regimens is a prime goal to further reduce adverse events of therapeutic ERC.
Diagnostic Utility of Serum Ascites Lipid and Protein Gradients in Differentiation of Ascites
Context. Ability of SAAG to differentiate malignant ascites from other aetiologies like tubercular peritonitis is a major problem. Alternate screening test is needed for differentiating ascites due to malignancy from those due to tubercular peritonitis. Aims. To study the diagnostic utility of serum ascites lipid gradients and serum ascites protein gradients in pathophysiological differentiation of ascites. Settings and Design. The present study is a prospective, descriptive, hospital-based, cross-sectional study. Methods and Material. The study was conducted on patients with ascites who were admitted to General Medicine Department, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. The study included 60 patients with ascites of different etiologies (liver cirrhosis, tubercular peritonitis, and malignant ascites). All of them had undergone clinical, laboratory, and imaging investigations and were treated as per standard of care. All patients underwent abdominal paracentesis, and fluid samples were sent for analysis. Statistical Analysis Used. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and ROC curve analysis. Results. Among the gradients, only SAPG and SAAG had over all statistical significance (<0.005) among the groups, but no significance between malignancy and tubercular peritonitis had been observed. Similarly all the ascitic fluid parameters measured had an overall statistical significance (<0.005), but there was no significant difference observed between malignancy and tubercular peritonitis groups. However, ascitic fluid and serum HDL cholesterol had a statistical significance (<0.05) between malignancy and tubercular peritonitis. Conclusions. With a cut-off value of 4, SAPG is one of best screening tests in differentiation of cirrhotic with noncirrhotic ascites when compared with SAAG, whereas it is a poor parameter with high sensitivity and very low specificity in differentiation of malignant with nonmalignant ascites. Also the present study reveals HDL cholesterol levels in ascitic fluid to be a valuable marker with higher sensitivity and specificity in differentiation of malignancy and tuberculosis peritonitis (i.e., differentiation of low SAAG ascites).