Prevalence and Knowledge of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in the Ningo-Prampram District, GhanaRead the full article
International Journal of Hepatology publishes research related to medical, surgical, pathological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of hepatology and management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree and pancreas.
International Journal of Hepatology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Isoniazid and Rifampicin Produce Hepatic Fibrosis through an Oxidative Stress-Dependent Mechanism
Background & Aims. Chronic hepatitis (CH) has emerged as a distinct outcome of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Combination therapy of Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RMP) which is widely used for prolonged periods can cause acute hepatotoxicity and has been also incriminated in chronic DILI. We sought evidence of the production of hepatic fibrosis on long-term INH-RMP treatment through experiments in BALB/c mice exposed to INH-RMP. Methods. A combined dose of INH (50 mg) and RMP (100 mg) per kg body weight per day was administered to mice by oral gavage, 6 days a week, for 4 to 24 weeks for the assessment of liver injury, oxidative stress, and development of hepatic fibrosis, including demonstration of changes in key fibrogenesis linked pathways and mediators. Results. Progressive increase in markers of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation associated with changes in matrix turnover was observed between 12 and 24 weeks of INH-RMP treatment along with the elevation of liver collagen content and significant periportal fibrosis. These were associated with concurrent apoptosis of the hepatocytes, increase in hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, and development of hepatic oxidative stress. Conclusions. INH-RMP can activate HSC through generation of NOX-mediated oxidative stress, leading to the development of liver fibrosis.
The Many Difficulties and Subtleties in the Cognitive Assessment of Chronic Hepatitis C Infection
Since the discovery of HCV in 1989, several diseases have been related to chronic infection by this virus. Often, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) complain of cognitive impairment even before the development of hepatic cirrhosis, which they described as “brain fog.” Several studies have proposed a link between chronic HCV infection and the development of cognitive alterations, but the inclusion of confounding factors in their samples significantly limits the analysis of the results. In this article, we will give an overview about cognitive dysfunction in patients with HCV.
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides Difficile Infection in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease
Background. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a well-established therapeutic option for patients with antibiotic resistant Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, the efficacy of FMT in patients with chronic liver disease remains elusive. Aims. We studied the effect of FMT on chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with CDI at our tertiary medical center. Methods. A cohort of all patients who received FMT from December 2012 to May 2014 for refractory or recurrent CDI was identified. Patients were monitored for a year after FMT. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare the effect of FMT in patients with and without CLD. Results. A total of 201 patients with CDI received FMT, 14 of which had a history of CLD. Nine of these patients exhibited cirrhosis of the liver with a mean Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of 8. CDI development in these patients was associated with recent exposure to antibiotics and was observed to be significantly different between both groups (17% of CLD patients vs. 58% in the general cohort, ). Four patients with CLD received >1 FMT, of which 2 did not respond to treatment. There was no significant difference between patients with liver disease and the rest of the cohort with regard to FMT response (12/14 (87%) vs. 164/187 (88%), ). Conclusion. FMT is a safe and effective therapy against CDI for patients with CLD and cirrhosis.
Avatrombopag, an Alternate Treatment Option to Reduce Platelet Transfusions in Patients with Thrombocytopenia and Chronic Liver Disease-Integrated Analyses of 2 Phase 3 Studies
Aims. Thrombocytopenia complicates the management of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) undergoing invasive procedures with a bleeding risk. Until recently, prophylactic platelet transfusion was the only treatment option, but has significant safety and efficacy limitations. Phase 3 data demonstrated the superiority of avatrombopag to placebo in reducing platelet transfusions for bleeding, supporting its recent approval. Methods. Integrated analyses of pooled data () from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies assessed the original efficacy endpoints. Additional analyses included subgroup analyses, alternate Baseline platelet count definitions, and another efficacy endpoint. Results. Avatrombopag was superior to placebo in increasing patients not requiring a platelet transfusion or rescue procedure, those achieving a platelet count ≥50 × 109/L on Procedure Day, and the change in platelet counts from Baseline. The avatrombopag treatment effect was consistently positive across clinically important disease and Baseline clinical characteristic subgroups, and using alternate Baseline platelet count cohort definitions. Similarly, more avatrombopag-treated patients achieved ≥50 × 109/L platelets with an increase of ≥20 × 109/L from Baseline. The incidence and severity of adverse events were similar between avatrombopag and placebo. Further, safety data demonstrated a low risk for thromboembolic events and hepatotoxicity. Conclusion. These integrated analyses confirmed the superiority of avatrombopag to placebo in reducing platelet transfusions or rescue procedures for bleeding in patients with thrombocytopenia and CLD scheduled to undergo an invasive procedure, and its tolerable safety profile. Importantly, these data warrant reconsideration of clinical decision making regarding the need to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD. This trial was registered with NCT01972529 and NCT01976104.
Comparative Study of Protective Effect of Cimetidine and Verapamil on Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice
Paracetamol, chemically known as acetaminophen, if taken in higher doses has hepatotoxic potential. Cimetidine by inhibiting the cytochromal enzymes and reducing the production of the toxic metabolite can reduce the hepatotoxic potential while Verapamil can act as a hepatoprotective by maintaining calcium homeostasis. The present study was conducted to study the hepatoprotective activity of Cimetidine and Verapamil against the toxicity induced by paracetamol. In addition to the group receiving only distilled water or 300 mg/kg paracetamol additional groups were added treated with 150 mg/kg Cimetidine and Verapamil alone or both. The Liver function tests and histopathology revealed hepatotoxicity in the group receiving paracetamol (PCM) while normal parameters were observed in the groups receiving Cimetidine and Verapamil. Our results strongly suggested that Cimetidine and Verapamil possess hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards Hepatitis B Virus among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious public health concern worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the major mode in endemic areas, including Ethiopia, where little is known about pregnant women’s knowledge, attitudes, and practice towards HBV infection and MTCT. Therefore, the study is aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards HBV among pregnant women attending antenatal care. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2018, at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. A total of 354 pregnant women were selected by systematic random sampling and included in this study. KAP of participants on HBV MTCT was assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 software. Result. The total response rate was 100% (354/354). Out of the 354 participants, 73.4% were within the poor knowledge. Only 18.9% of the respondents know HBV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy. Less than half (43.8) of the participants think that they will never be infected with HBV, and 47.7% of them go to traditional healers when they have symptoms of HBV. Majority of the respondents (85.87%) had never screened for HBV, and only 28.5% of the participants believed that hepatitis B can cause liver cancer. In multivariable analysis, residence, income, and educational level were associated with mean score knowledge and attitude. Conclusions. Knowledge about HBV among pregnant women was found to be poor, and their attitude and practice were also limited. Therefore, extensive health education program should be given to the pregnant women to increase their awareness towards HBV infection. All pregnant women should be screened for HBV as part of ANC follow-up.