Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2011, Article ID 363151, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/363151
Review Article

Screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Gleneagles Hospital, 6A Napier Road, Singapore 258500
2Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608

Received 16 March 2011; Accepted 19 July 2011

Academic Editor: Deepak Amarapurkar

Copyright © 2011 Hock-Foong Lui. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. International Agency for Cancer Reseach, “GLOBOCAN 2008”.
  2. J. M. Llovet, A. M. Di Bisceglie, J. Bruix et al., “Design and endpoints of clinical trials in hepatocellular carcinoma,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 10, pp. 698–711, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Fattovich, T. Stroffolini, I. Zagni, and F. Donato, “Hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: incidence and risk factors,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, no. 5 supplement 1, pp. S35–S50, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. M. G. Wilson and G. Jungner, “Principles and practice of screening for disease,” Public Health Papers number 34, pp. 22–473, WHO Chronicle Geneva: World Health Organization, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  5. G. Fattovich, T. Stroffolini, I. Zagni, and F. Donato, “Hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: incidence and risk factors,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, pp. S35–S50, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. N. Zaman, W. M. Melia, R. D. Johnson, B. C. Portmann, P. J. Johnson, and R. Williams, “Risk factors in development of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: prospective study of 613 patients,” The Lancet, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1357–1360, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  7. J. P. Villeneuve, M. Desrochers, C. Infante-Rivard et al., “A long-term follow-up study of asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen-positive carriers in Montreal,” Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 1000–1005, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Fattovich, L. Brollo, G. Giustina et al., “Natural history and prognostic factors for chronic hepatitis type B,” Gut, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 294–298, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Befrits, M. Hedman, L. Blomquist et al., “Chronic hepatitis C in alcoholic patients: prevalence, genotypes, and correlation to liver disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1113–1118, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. M. Hassan, L. Y. Hwang, C. J. Hatten et al., “Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: synergism of alcohol with viral hepatitis and diabetes mellitus,” Hepatology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1206–1213, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Elmberg, R. Hultcrantz, A. Ekbom et al., “Cancer risk in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and in their first-degree relatives,” Gastroenterology, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1733–1741, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Caballeria, A. Pares, A. Castells, A. Gines, C. Bru, and J. Rodes, “Hepatocellular carcinoma in primary biliary cirrhosis: similar incidence to that in hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 96, pp. 1160–1163, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Eriksson, J. Carlson, and R. Velez, “Risk of cirrhosis and primary liver cancer in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 314, no. 12, pp. 736–739, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Bugianesi, N. Leone, E. Vanni et al., “Expanding the natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: from cryptogenic cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma,” Gastroenterology, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 134–140, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Shimada, E. Hashimoto, M. Taniai et al., “Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 154–160, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Bruix and M. Sherman, “Practice guidelines committee, American association for the study of liver diseases. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma,” Hepatology, vol. 42, pp. 1208–1236, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  17. P. E. Chang, W. C. Ong, H. F. Lui, and C. K. Tan, “Is the prognosis of young patients with hepatocellular carcinoma poorer than the prognosis of older patients? A comparative analysis of clinical characteristics, prognostic features, and survival outcome,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 881–888, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. I. Yang, M. F. Yuen, H. L. Chan et al., “Risk estimation for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B (REACH-B): development and validation of a predictive score,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 12, pp. 568–574, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. B. de González and S. Darby, “Risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays: estimates for the UK and 14 other countries,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9406, pp. 345–351, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. Trevisani, P. E. D'Intino, A. M. Morselli-Labate et al., “Serum α-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease: influence of HBsAg and anti-HCV status,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 570–575, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Izuno, S. Fujiyama, K. Yamasaki, M. Sato, and T. Sato, “Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis by combined assay of des-γ-carboxy prothrombin and α-fetoprotein: a prospective study,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 387–393, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Toyoda, T. Kumada, T. Tada et al., “Clinical utility of highly sensitive Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with alpha-fetoprotein <20?ng/mL,” Cancer Science, vol. 102, pp. 1025–1031, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Shiraki, K. Takase, Y. Tameda, M. Hamada, Y. Kosaka, and T. Nakano, “A clinical study of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein as an early indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma in the follow-up of cirrhotic patients,” Hepatology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 802–807, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Bolondi, S. Sofia, S. Siringo et al., “Surveillance programme of cirrhotic patients for early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a cost effectiveness analysis,” Gut, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 251–259, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Trevisani, S. De Notariis, G. Rapaccini et al., “Semiannual and annual surveillance of cirrhotic patients for hepatocellular carcinoma: effects on cancer stage and patient survival (Italian experience),” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 734–744, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Santagostino, M. Colombo, M. Rivi et al., “A 6-month versus a 12-month surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma in 559 hemophiliacs infected with the hepatitis C virus,” Blood, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 78–82, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Y. Kim, K.-H. Han, S. H. Ahn et al., “Semiannual surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma improved patient survival compared to annual surveillance (Korean experience),” Hepatology, vol. 46, p. 403A, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. M. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. C. Lin, C. W. Hsu, and Y. C. Chen, “Radiofrequency ablation improves prognosis compared with ethanol injection for hepatocellular carcinoma ≤4 cm,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1714–1723, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Shiina, T. Teratani, S. Obi et al., “A randomized controlled trial of radiofrequency ablation with ethanol injection for small hepatocellular carcinoma,” Gastroenterology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 122–130, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus