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International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2012, Article ID 439024, 8 pages
Review Article

Regulation of T Helper 17 by Bacteria: An Approach for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
2Department of Surgery, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong

Received 1 August 2012; Accepted 26 November 2012

Academic Editor: Weiliang Xia

Copyright © 2012 Cecilia Ying Ju Sung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


T helper 17 ( ) is a novel subset of T helper cells that has recently been identified in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor environment. Its presence seems to be linked with HCC progression, possibly via facilitating angiogenesis. The origin of tumor-associated may be related to the gut, in which the differentiation of T cells, especially cells, is affected by microbiota. As may appear to be a new therapeutic target against tumor-promoting inflammation, strategies such as using probiotics to polarize the response away from may be beneficial to slow down tumor progression. This paper will attempt to discuss the potential linkage between HCC progression, , and gut microbiota and the possible therapeutic implications of probiotics to modulate -mediated response for tumor growth.