International Journal of Hepatology / 2012 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Molecular Pathogenesis of Cholangiocarcinoma

Figure 1

Proposed mechanisms leading to transformation of normal biliary cells into malignant cholangiocytes. Cholangiocarcinoma cells express altered molecular mechanisms, which enhance cell proliferation, decrease apoptosis, and increase the capacity of tissue invasion, stromal proliferation, and angiogenesis.