Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 649290, 6 pages
Review Article

PBC: Animal Models of Cholangiopathies and Possible Endogenous Viral Infections

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Seiryo, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan

Received 2 April 2011; Accepted 19 June 2011

Academic Editor: A. J. Demetris

Copyright © 2012 Masashi Ninomiya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) is considered an autoimmune disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts and its characteristic serologic marker, the anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA). Several factors were proposed to clarify the pathological and immunological mechanisms of PBC. Immunological reaction with a bacterial or a viral association was identified in the previous report, and it seems probable that PBC was thought to have such an etiology. The majority of patients with PBC was reported to have both RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry evidence of human betaretrovirus infection in lymph nodes or in 2008, the patient who developed PBC with high HIV viral load had an antiviral therapy and recovered. To understand the etiology of PBC associated with infection, several factors should be considered and especially animal models may be useful. In this paper, we introduce three typical animal models of PBC: the dominant-negative form of transforming growth factor-β receptor type II (dnTGFβRII) mouse, IL-2Rα−/− mouse and NOD.c3c4 mouse, are enumerated and described, and we discuss previous reports of viral infection associated with PBC and consider the etiology of PBC from our analysis of results in NOD.c3c4 mouse.