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International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2012, Article ID 782672, 9 pages
Review Article

Surgical Treatment of Liver Metastases in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

1Department of Surgical Oncology, Lilavati Hospital & Research Centre, Mumbai 400 050, India
2Department of Surgical Oncology, Dr. L. H. Hiranandani Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai 400 076, India
3Department of Gastrointestinal Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai 400 012, India

Received 15 July 2011; Accepted 7 October 2011

Academic Editor: Wouter de Herder

Copyright © 2012 Palepu Jagannath et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a distinctive entity, and nearly 10% of patients already have liver metastases at presentation. The management of neuroendocrine liver metastases (NEN-LM) is complex with differing patterns of metastatic presentation. An aggressive approach should be used to resect the primary tumor, to remove regional lymph nodes, and to resect or treat appropriate distant metastases (including liver tumors). Despite having an indolent course, NENs have a significantly reduced survival when liver metastases are untreated. Though a wide range of therapies are now available with a multimodal approach to the treatment, surgical treatment offers the only chance for a significant survival prolongation and/or improvement of symptoms and quality of life. A review of the existing surgical modalities for NEN-LM is discussed in this paper.