Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2015, Article ID 852968, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/852968
Review Article

Chronic Hepatitis C: An Overview of Evidence on Epidemiology and Management from a Brazilian Perspective

1Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Laboratory of Clinical Research on STD/AIDS, Avenida Brasil 4365, 21040-900 Manguinhos, RJ, Brazil
2Institute of Health Research, Peninsula Technology Assessment Group (PenTAG), Evidence Synthesis and Modelling for Health Improvement (ESMI), University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, St Luke’s Campus, South Cloisters, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK

Received 31 July 2015; Revised 3 November 2015; Accepted 11 November 2015

Academic Editor: Maria Buti

Copyright © 2015 Rodolfo Castro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. J. Alter, H. S. Margolis, K. Krawczynski et al., “The natural history of community-acquired hepatitis C in the United States,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 327, no. 27, pp. 1899–1905, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J.-M. Pawlotsky, “Virology of hepatitis B and C viruses and antiviral targets,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 44, supplement 1, pp. S10–S13, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. A. Terrault, J. L. Dodge, E. L. Murphy et al., “Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among monogamous heterosexual couples: the HCV partners study,” Hepatology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 881–889, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. National Institutes of Health, “National institutes of health consensus development conference statement: management of hepatitis C: 2002—June 10–12, 2002,” Hepatology, vol. 36, supplement 1, pp. S3–S20, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. V. Reggiardo, F. Fay, M. Tanno et al., “Natural history of hepatitis c virus infection in a cohort of asymptomatic post-transfused subjects,” Annals of Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 658–666, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. European Association for Study of the Liver, EASL Recommendations on Treatment of Hepatitis C 2014, EASL, Geneva, Switzerland, 2014.
  7. S. Maity, S. Nandi, S. Biswas, S. K. Sadhukhan, and M. K. Saha, “Performance and diagnostic usefulness of commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and rapid kits for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV in India,” Virology Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, article 290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. D. Smith, J. Drobeniuc, A. Jewett et al., “Evaluation of three rapid screening assays for detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 204, no. 6, pp. 825–831, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. A. Moyer, “Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 349–357, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. T. J. Liang and M. G. Ghany, “Current and future therapies for hepatitis C virus infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 368, no. 20, pp. 1907–1917, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. G. Murphy, B. Willems, M. Deschênes, N. Hilzenrat, R. Mousseau, and S. Sabbah, “Use of sequence analysis of the NS5B region for routine genotyping of hepatitis C virus with reference to C/E1 and 5′ untranslated region sequences,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1102–1112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Sy and M. M. Jamal, “Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection,” International Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 41–46, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Abrantes, D. S. Torres, and C. E. B. de Mello, “Patients with hepatitis C infection and normal liver function: an evaluation of cognitive function,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 89, no. 1054, pp. 433–439, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. G. Vigani, M. H. Pavan, R. Tozzo et al., “Comparative study of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection due to genotypes 1 and 3 referred for treatment in southeast Brazil,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, article 164, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. R. Das, B. Kundu, R. Khandapkar, and S. Sahni, “Geographical distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in India,” Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 323–328, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Departamento de DST. Aids e Hepatites Virais, Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Hepatite C e Coinfecções, MS, Brasília, Brazil, 2015.
  17. F. Ansaldi, A. Orsi, L. Sticchi, B. Bruzzone, and G. Icardi, “Hepatitis C virus in the new era: perspectives in epidemiology, prevention, diagnostics and predictors of response to therapy,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 29, pp. 9633–9652, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Lavanchy, “The global burden of hepatitis C,” Liver International, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 74–81, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Departamento de DST, and Aids e Hepatites Virais, Boletim Epidemiológico—Hepatites Virais, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília, Brazil, 2012.
  20. Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, and Sinan Net, Hepatites Virais Casos Confirmados Notificados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação por Ano de Diagnóstico/Sintomas, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília, Brazil, 2015.
  21. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Departamento de DST, and Aids e Hepatites Virais, Boletim Epidemiológico—Hepatites Virais, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília, Brazil, 2015.
  22. R. C. Botero and M. Tagle, “New therapies for hepatitis C: Latin American perspectives,” Clinical Liver Disease, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 8–10, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. L. M. M. B. Pereira, C. M. T. Martelli, R. C. Moreira et al., “Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a Cross-Sectional Study,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, article 60, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. F. Fernandes, M. L. Ferraz, L. E. Andrade et al., “Enhanced liver fibrosis panel as a predictor of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 235–241, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Perazzo, F. F. Fernandes, A. Gomes, C. Terra, R. M. Perez, and F. A. F. Figueiredo, “Interobserver variability in transient elastography analysis of patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Liver International, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1533–1539, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. C. Paranaguá-Vezozzo, S. K. Ono, M. V. Alvarado-Mora et al., “Epidemiology of HCC in Brazil: incidence and risk factors in a ten-year cohort,” Annals of Hepatology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 386–393, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Akamatsu and Y. Sugawara, “Liver transplantation and Hepatitis C,” International Journal of Hepatology, vol. 2012, Article ID 686135, 22 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. F. Klaus, C. Keitel da Silva, G. Meinerz et al., “Acute kidney injury after liver transplantation: incidence and mortality,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1819–1821, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. R. Salvalaggio, J. C. Caicedo, L. C. de Albuquerque et al., “Liver transplantation in Latin America: the state-of-the-art and future trends,” Transplantation, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 241–246, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. M. Barrera, M. Bruguera, M. Guadalupe Ercilla et al., “Persistent hepatitis C viremia after acute self-limiting posttransfusion hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 639–644, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Poynard, V. Ratziu, Y. Benmanov, V. Di Martino, P. Bedossa, and P. Opolon, “Fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: detection and significance,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. A. Villano, D. Vlahov, K. E. Nelson, S. Cohn, and D. L. Thomas, “Persistence of viremia and the importance of long-term follow-up after acute hepatitis C infection,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 908–914, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Poynard, P. Bedossa, and P. Opolon, “Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” The Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9055, pp. 825–832, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. H. J. Alter and L. B. Seeff, “Recovery, persistence, and sequelae in hepatitis C virus infection: a perspective on long-term outcome,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 17–35, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Cohen, “Extrahepatic manifestations of the hepatitis C virus,” Presse Medicale, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 209–214, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Prati, A. Zanella, C. De Mattei et al., “Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 105, no. 3, p. 841, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. R. Planas, B. Ballesté, M. A. Álvarez et al., “Natural history of decompensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. A study of 200 patients,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 823–830, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. L. Chen and T. R. Morgan, “The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection,” International Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 47–52, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Bedossa, “Intraobserver and interobserver variations in liver biopsy interpretation in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 1, part 1, pp. 15–20, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. K. Ishak, A. Baptista, L. Bianchi et al., “Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 696–699, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. B. McGill, J. Rakela, A. R. Zinsmeister, and B. J. Ott, “A 21-year experience with major hemorrhage after percutaneous liver biopsy,” Gastroenterology, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1396–1400, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Bergesch D'Incao, M. C. A. da Silva, P. R. L. de Almeida, V. Plasse Renon, and C. V. Tovo, “Percutaneous liver biopsy—2 decades of experience in a public hospital in the South of Brazil,” Annals of Hepatology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 876–880, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. A. Bravo, S. G. Sheth, and S. Chopra, “Liver biopsy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 7, pp. 495–500, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. Bedossa, D. Dargère, and V. Paradis, “Sampling variability of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1449–1457, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M.-C. Rousselet, S. Michalak, F. Dupré et al., “Sources of variability in histological scoring of chronic viral hepatitis,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 257–264, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Poynard, R. Morra, P. Ingiliz et al., “Assessment of liver fibrosis: noninvasive means,” Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 163–173, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Sharma, K. Khalili, and G. C. Nguyen, “Non-invasive diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 45, pp. 16820–16830, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Bota, H. Herkner, I. Sporea et al., “Meta-analysis: ARFI elastography versus transient elastography for the evaluation of liver fibrosis,” Liver International, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1138–1147, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C.-T. Wai, J. K. Greenson, R. J. Fontana et al., “A simple noninvasive index can predict both significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 518–526, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Perazzo, R. Pais, M. Munteanu et al., “Variability in definitions of transaminase upper limit of the normal impacts the APRI performance as a biomarker of fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: ‘APRI c'est fini?’,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 432–439, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. Chou and N. Wasson, “Blood tests to diagnose fibrosis or cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 11, pp. 807–820, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. Nunes, C. Fleming, G. Offner et al., “Noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis are highly predictive of liver-related death in a cohort of HCV-infected individuals with and without HIV infection,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 1346–1353, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Vergniol, J. Foucher, E. Terrebonne et al., “Noninvasive tests for fibrosis and liver stiffness predict 5-year outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 1970–1979, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Poynard, Y. Ngo, H. Perazzo et al., “Prognostic value of liver fibrosis biomarkers: a meta-analysis,” Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 445–454, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. R. Parise, A. C. Oliveira, C. Figueiredo-Mendes et al., “Noninvasive serum markers in the diagnosis of structural liver damage in chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” Liver International, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1095–1099, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. G. da Silva Jr., R. Fakhouri, T. V. B. do Nascimento, I. M. Santos, and L. M. M. Barbosa, “Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. G. F. Amorim, G. J. Staub, C. Lazzarotto et al., “Validation and comparison of simple noninvasive models for the prediction of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C,” Annals of Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 855–861, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. G. Silva Junior, J. Schmillevitch, M. D. F. A. Nascimento et al., “Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography and serum fibrosis markers in chronic hepatitis C,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 986–992, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. V. de Lédinghen and J. Vergniol, “Transient elastography (FibroScan),” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 32, supplement 1, no. 6, pp. 58–67, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. H. Perazzo, F. F. Fernandes, J. C. Soares et al., “Learning curve and intra/interobserver agreement of transient elastography in chronic hepatitis C patients with or without HIV co-infection,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. L. Castéra, J. Vergniol, J. Foucher et al., “Prospective comparison of transient elastography, Fibrotest, APRI, and liver biopsy for the assessment of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 343–350, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Ziol, A. Handra-Luca, A. Kettaneh et al., “Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis by measurement of stiffness in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 48–54, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Poynard, J. Vergniol, Y. Ngo et al., “Staging chronic hepatitis C in seven categories using fibrosis biomarker (FibroTest) and transient elastography (FibroScan),” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 706–714, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. A. Alves, M. Z. Baldessar, G. W. Pereira, V. M. Kuehlkamp, C. Hilzendeger, and J. da Silva, “Quality of life of patients with hepatitis C,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 553–557, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. C. El Khoury, J. Vietri, and G. Prajapati, “Health-related quality of life in patients with hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil,” Pan American Journal of Public Health, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 200–206, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. E. Strauss, F. A. Porto-Ferreira, C. de Almeida-Neto, and M. C. D. Teixeira, “Altered quality of life in the early stages of chronic hepatitis C is due to the virus itself,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 40–45, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. C. D. Teixeira, M. D. F. G. S. Ribeiro, L. C. D. C. Gayotto, D. D. A. F. Chamone, and E. Strauss, “Worse quality of life in volunteer blood donors with hepatitis C,” Transfusion (Paris), vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 278–283, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  68. B. C. Fábregas, R. E. de Ávila, M. N. Faria, A. S. Moura, R. A. Carmo, and A. L. Teixeira, “Health related quality of life among patients with chronic hepatitis C: a cross-sectional study of sociodemographic, psychopathological and psychiatric determinants,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 633–639, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. C. Fábregas, A. S. Moura, R. E. de Ávila, M. N. Faria, R. A. Carmo, and A. L. Teixeira, “Sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction in chronic hepatitis C patients,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 564–572, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Morais-de-Jesus, R. Daltro-Oliveira, K. M. Pettersen et al., “Hepatitis C virus infection as a traumatic experience,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10, Article ID e110529, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. C. M. Fonseca, G. T. B. de Araújo, and D. V. Araújo, “Cost effectiveness of peginterferon alfa-2B combined with ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in Brazil,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 191–199, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. F. M. R. Barros, H. Cheinquer, C. T. Tsuchiya, and E. A. V. Santos, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment with peginterferon-alfa-2a versus peginterferon-alfa-2b for patients with chronic hepatitis C under the public payer perspective in Brazil,” Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, vol. 11, no. 1, article 25, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. E. Massad, F. A. B. Coutinho, E. Chaib, and M. N. Burattini, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of a hypothetical hepatitis C vaccine compared to antiviral therapy,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 241–249, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. P. da S. Rodrigues, C. M. de M. Vianna, G. B. G. Mosegui, F. V. Costa e Silva, A. A. de F. Peregrino, and F. N. Jardim, “Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment in slow virologic responders coinfected with HIV,” Cadernos de Saúde Pública, vol. 29, supplement 1, pp. S146–S158, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  75. K. Bichoupan, V. Martel-Laferriere, D. Sachs et al., “Costs of telaprevir-based triple therapy for hepatitis C: $189,000 per sustained virological response,” Hepatology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1187–1195, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. J. van der Meer, B. J. Veldt, J. J. Feld et al., “Association between sustained virological response and all-cause mortality among patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced hepatic fibrosis,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 308, no. 24, pp. 2584–2593, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. Imran, S. Manzoor, J. Ashraf et al., “Role of viral and host factors in interferon based therapy of hepatitis C virus infection,” Virology Journal, vol. 10, article 299, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. Chevaliez, “Antiviral activity of the new DAAs for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection: virology and resistance,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 35, pp. S46–S51, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. S. Artico, K. M. Amaral, C. B. T. Gonçalves, and P. D. Picon, “The effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C genotype 2 and 3: a prospective cohort study in Brazil,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, article 377, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. G. Vigani, E. S. Gonçales, M. H. P. Pavan et al., “Therapeutic effectiveness of biosimilar standard interferon versus pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 or 3,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 232–236, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. P. Webster, P. Klenerman, and G. M. Dusheiko, “Hepatitis C,” The Lancet, vol. 385, no. 9973, pp. 1124–1135, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. F. Poordad, J. McCone Jr., B. R. Bacon et al., “Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 13, pp. 1195–1206, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. I. M. Jacobson, J. G. McHutchison, G. Dusheiko et al., “Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 25, pp. 2405–2416, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. Hézode, H. Fontaine, C. Dorival et al., “Effectiveness of telaprevir or boceprevir in treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and cirrhosis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 132–142.e4, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. J. Kiser, J. R. Burton, and G. T. Everson, “Drug-drug interactions during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 596–606, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J.-M. Pawlotsky, “Treatment failure and resistance with direct-acting antiviral drugs against hepatitis C virus,” Hepatology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1742–1751, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Manns, P. Marcellin, F. Poordad et al., “Simeprevir with pegylated interferon alfa 2a or 2b plus ribavirin in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection (QUEST-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial,” The Lancet, vol. 384, no. 9941, pp. 414–426, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. K. V. Kowdley, E. Lawitz, I. Crespo et al., “Sofosbuvir with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C genotype-1 infection (ATOMIC): an open-label, randomised, multicentre phase 2 trial,” The Lancet, vol. 381, no. 9883, pp. 2100–2107, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. N. Afdhal, K. R. Reddy, D. R. Nelson et al., “Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for previously treated HCV genotype 1 infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 16, pp. 1483–1493, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. K. V. Kowdley, S. C. Gordon, K. R. Reddy et al., “Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 8 or 12 weeks for chronic HCV without cirrhosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 20, pp. 1879–1888, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. Zeuzem, I. M. Jacobson, T. Baykal et al., “Retreatment of HCV with ABT-450/r—ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 17, pp. 1604–1614, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. F. Poordad, C. Hezode, R. Trinh et al., “ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin for hepatitis C with cirrhosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 21, pp. 1973–1982, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. E. Lawitz, M. S. Sulkowski, R. Ghalib et al., “Simeprevir plus sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, to treat chronic infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 in non-responders to pegylated interferon and ribavirin and treatment-naive patients: the COSMOS randomised study,” The Lancet, vol. 384, no. 9956, pp. 1756–1765, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. I. M. Jacobson, S. C. Gordon, K. V. Kowdley et al., “Sofosbuvir for hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 in patients without treatment options,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 368, no. 20, pp. 1867–1877, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. S. Zeuzem, G. M. Dusheiko, R. Salupere et al., “Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin in HCV genotypes 2 and 3,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 21, pp. 1993–2001, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. R. Nelson, J. N. Cooper, J. P. Lalezari et al., “All-oral 12-week treatment with daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection: ALLY-3 phase III study,” Hepatology, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1127–1135, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. E. J. Gane, R. H. Hyland, D. An et al., “Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir fixed dose combination is safe and effective in difficult-to-treat populations including genotype-3 patients, decompensated genotype-1 patients, and genotype-1 patients with prior sofosbuvir treatment experience,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. S3–S4, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. P. J. Ruane, D. Ain, J. Riad et al., “Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin in the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 4 infection in patients of Egyptian ancestry,” in Proceedings of the 64rd Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, Washington, DC, USA, November 2013.
  99. C. Hezode, P. Marcellin, S. Pol et al., “Results from the phase 2 PEARL-I study: interferon-free regimens of ABT-450/R + ABT-267 with or without ribavirin in patients with HCV genotype 4 infection,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 60, no. 1, supplement, p. S24, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  100. R. P. Myers, H. Shah, K. W. Burak, C. Cooper, and J. J. Feld, “An update on the management of chronic hepatitis C: 2015 Consensus guidelines from the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 19–34, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. AASLD/IDSA HCV Guidance Panel, “Hepatitis C guidance: AASLD-IDSA recommendations for testing, managing, and treating adults infected with hepatitis C virus,” Hepatology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 932–954, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. L. Hoffmann, J. A. Ramos, E. V. de Souza et al., “Dynamics of resistance mutations to NS3 protease inhibitors in a cohort of Brazilian patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (genotype 1) treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin: a prospective longitudinal study,” Virology Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 57, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. L. B. Zeminian, J. L. Padovani, S. M. Corvino, G. F. Silva, M. I. D. M. C. Pardini, and R. M. T. Grotto, “Variability and resistance mutations in the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease in patients not treated with protease inhibitors,” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. Sarrazin, “The importance of resistance to direct antiviral drugs in HCV infection in clinical practice,” Journal of Hepatology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. S. Bansal, A. K. Singal, B. M. McGuire, and B. S. Anand, “Impact of all oral anti-hepatitis C virus therapy: a meta-analysis,” World Journal of Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 806–813, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. V. Soriano, E. Vispo, E. Poveda et al., “Directly acting antivirals against hepatitis C virus,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 8, Article ID dkr215, pp. 1673–1686, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. C. Booth, J. O'Grady, J. Neuberger, and Thr Royal College of Physicians of London and the British Society of Gastroenterology, “Clinical guidelines on the management of hepatitis C,” Gut, vol. 49, supplement 1, pp. I1–I21, 2001. View at Google Scholar