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International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2018, Article ID 5253623, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5253623
Review Article

Hepatotoxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Pajaree Sriuttha; moc.liamg@jpkoom

Received 24 July 2017; Revised 25 September 2017; Accepted 17 October 2017; Published 15 January 2018

Academic Editor: Maria Buti

Copyright © 2018 Pajaree Sriuttha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most widely used medication in several countries, including Thailand. NSAIDs have been associated with hepatic side effects; however, the frequency of these side effects is uncertain. Aim of the Review. To systematically review published literature on randomized, controlled trials that assessed the risk of clinically significant hepatotoxicity associated with NSAIDs. Methods. Searches of bibliographic databases EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were conducted up to July 30, 2016, to identify randomized controlled trials of ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, piroxicam, meloxicam, mefenamic acid, indomethacin, celecoxib, and etoricoxib in adults with any disease that provide information on hepatotoxicity outcomes. Results. Among the 698 studies, 18 studies met the selection criteria. However, only 8 studies regarding three NSAIDs (celecoxib, etoricoxib, and diclofenac) demonstrated clinically significant hepatotoxic evidence based on hepatotoxicity justification criteria. Of all the hepatotoxicity events found from the above-mentioned three NSAIDs, diclofenac had the highest proportion, which ranged from 0.015 to 4.3 (×10−2), followed by celecoxib, which ranged from 0.13 to 0.38 (×10−2), and etoricoxib, which ranged from 0.005 to 0.930 (×10−2). Conclusion. Diclofenac had higher rates of hepatotoxic evidence compared to other NSAIDs. Hepatotoxic evidence is mostly demonstrated as aminotransferase elevation, while liver-related hospitalization or discontinuation was very low.