Table 1: Characteristics of studies included in systematic review.

Number Study Study designIntervention (dose/day) Characteristics of patientsDuration (weeks) Jadad score
Number of samplesFemale (%)Age (mean ± SD)
(years)
Indication

1Buxton et al. 1978 [16]A crossover, double-blind, two cycles of four-week treatment study Indomethacin 75 mg20 70.0 64 OA2 wk fenbufen
2 wk placebo 
2 wk indomethacin
3
Fenbufen 600 mg20

2Verbruggen et al. 1982 [17]A crossover, double-blind studyNaproxen 500 mg1190.066 (median) OA2 3
Nabumetone 1000 mg1064.062.5 (median)

3Turner 1988 [18] Two randomized, double-blind studiesNaproxen 750 mg286 N/A 52.3 (all) RA24 3
Naproxen 1500 mg300

4Eversmeyer et al. 1993 [19] A randomized, open-label,  multicenter studyDiclofenac 100–200 mg296 N/A N/A Age > 18 OA and RA 12 2
Nabumetone 1500–2000 mg3315
Naproxen 500–1500 mg279
Ibuprofen 1200–3200296
Piroxicam 10–20 mg286

5Kennedy et al. 1994 [20] A randomized, double-blind, parallel,  multicenter studyDiclofenac 150 mg12170.064.6 ± 9.7 OA16 5
Ketoprofen ER 200 mg11870.063.3 ± 10.8

6Schmitt et al. 1999 [21] A randomized, double-blind, multicenter studyDiclofenac, enteric coated 150 mg11298.960 ± 9 OA 12 5
Diclofenac dual release capsule 150 mg11182.961 ± 9
Diclofenac capsule 75 mg11485.161 ± 10
Placebo5682.162 ± 9

7Morgan et al. 2001 [22] A randomized, double-blind, parallel, multicenter studyDiclofenac 100–150 mg16870.072 ± 6 OA12 wk 3
Nabumetone 1000–2000 mg16771.072 ± 6

8McKenna et al. 2001 [23] A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind comparison studyCelecoxib 200 mg20168.061.9 OA6 wk 4
Diclofenac 150 mg19962.062.7
Placebo20066.060.4

9Furst et al. 2002 [24] A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel studyDiclofenac 150 mg18177.954.7 ± 12.8 RA 12 wk 4
Meloxicam 7.5 mg17578.956.3 ± 11.5
Meloxicam 15 mg18475.555.6 ± 12.1
Meloxicam 22.5 mg17773.456.7 ± 11.8
Placebo17775.156.0 ± 12.1

10Tugwell et al. 2004 [25] A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, equivalence study Diclofenac 150 mg31157.063 ± 10 OA12 wk 5
Topical diclofenac 1.5% w/w 1.55 ml31157.064 ± 10

11Temper et al. 2006 [26] A randomized, double-blind,  single-dummy, control parallel, multicenter study Naproxen 750 mgGroup 1, 239; and group 2, 5271.859.5 OAgroup 1, 52 wk; and group 2, 42 wk 5
Acetaminophen 4 gGroup 1, 237; and group 2, 5366.659.1

12Laine et al. 2009 [27] Three randomized, double-blind studies:   the MEDAL study, EDGE study, and EDGE II study Diclofenac 150 mg17,28974.263.2 ± 8.5 OA and RA72 3
Etoricoxib 60 or 90 mg17,41274.263.2 ± 8.5

13Dahlberg et al. 2009 [28] A randomized, double-blind, parallel, multicenter studyCelecoxib 200 mg46368.071 OA52 5
Diclofenac 100 mg46269.071

14Sampalis and Brownell 2012 [29] A randomized, double-blind, placebo, and active comparator controlled pilot studyCelecoxib 200 mg1567.057.6 ± 12.6OA124
UP446 250 mg1567.062.8 ± 10.8
UP446 500 mg1560.054.6 ± 14.8
Placebo1567.055.3 ± 14.3

15Shell et al. 2012 [30] A randomized, double-blind, controlled studyNaproxen 250 mg42 18–75 Low back pain 4 3
Medical food alone43
Both medical food and naproxen44

16Chopra et al. 2013 [31] A randomized, double-blind, parallel, multicenter studyCelecoxib 200 mg110NA56.6OA245
SGCG & SCG22055.5
Glucosamine 2 g11055.3

17Altman et al. 2015 [32]An open-label, multicenter studyLow dose SoluMatrix diclofenac 75–105 mg60159.761.9OA522

18Pinsornsak et al. 2015 [33] A randomized, double-blind, controlled studyDiclofenac 75 mg3390.358.2 OA4 5
Sahastara (SHT) 3000 mg3390.060.4