Evaluation of Mean Platelet Volume in Children with HypertensionRead the full article
International Journal of Hypertension publishes original research articles, and review articles related to hypertension, with a special focus on vascular biology, epidemiology, pediatric hypertension, and hypertensive nephropathy.
Chief Editor, Professor Franco Veglio, is a Full Professor of Internal Medicine at the University of Turin, Italy.
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Covariates of Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Burdens among the Caregivers of Hypertensive Patients
Caregivers of hypertensive patients play a significant role in ensuring adequate patient care and lowering the risk of hypertension-relatedcomplications. Caregivers are ideal study subjects for identifying gaps in hypertension management. Our study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of hypertensive patients’ caregivers, to identify their extent of involvement in patients’ care, and to assess their care-related attributes. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 to February 2021 in the eight largest tertiary care medical college hospitals and all eight divisions of Bangladesh, with 949 caregivers enrolled. Data were collected using a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire through snowball sampling and analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, independent-sample T-test, and chi-square test. Among the 949 interviewed caregivers, 541 (57.0%) were female, and 479 (50.5%) were aged 18 to 25 years. The percentage scores regarding overall knowledge, attitude, and practice of the caregivers were 54.83 ± 17.95, 47.95 ± 24.05, and 61.26 ± 17.50, respectively. Caregivers’ education, history of hypertension, residence, age, relationship with the patient, occupation, and caregiving duration were significantly associated with the KAP scores. In addition, factors such as relationship with the patient, age, educational status, occupation, residence, and caregiving duration/day had significant correlations with all types of burden. Findings of this study suggest the necessity for awareness programs for the caregivers of hypertensive patients to diminish the gap in their KAP and improve their mental and physical health.
miR-145 Alleviates Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype Transition via ADAM17-Mediated ACE2 Shedding
It has been shown that miR-145 is involved in the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and may regulate vascular remodeling. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these pathological processes in hypertension are not fully elucidated. The present study was to examine whether miR-145 modulates phenotypic transformation of VSMCs under normal state and synthetic state and to explore the possible role of ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding and ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor axis. Wistar rats were fed with high-sucrose/high-fat diet for 30 weeks to establish a metabolic hypertension animal model. VSMCs were cultured and treated with Ang II with or without miR-145 mimics or miR-145 inhibitor. Results showed the expression of contractile markers α-SMA and SM22α, miR-145, ACE2, and Mas receptor reduced in the thoracic aorta of metabolic hypertensive rats (MHRs), while that of synthetic marker OPN increased as compared to the control group. In in vitro study, miR-145 inhibitor inhibited the expression of α-SMA, SM22α, ACE2, Mas receptor, and the Ang-(1–7) excretion and induced the expression of synthetic markers OPN, EREG, and MMP2. However, miR-145 mimic produced opposite effects on the VSMCs. In addition, in the synthetic VSMC induced by Ang II, miR-145 inhibitor partially reversed the induced expression of OPN, EREG, and MMP2 by Ang II, while further decreasing the expression of α-SMA and SM22α and ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas receptor. Cotreatment with ADAM17 siRNA partially reversed the inducible effect of miR-145 inhibitor on the EREG and MMP2, induced Ang-(1–7) excretion, and upregulated ACE2 and Mas receptor expression. In conclusion, miR-145 alleviates phenotype transition from contractile to synthetic type via ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding in VSMCs and retains the activation of ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas axis, which may benefit the vascular structural remodeling in the metabolic hypertension.
Pharmacogenomics of Hypertension in Africa: Paving the Way for a Pharmacogenetic-Based Approach for the Treatment of Hypertension in Africans
In Africa, the burden of hypertension has been rising at an alarming rate for the last two decades and is a major cause for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is characterised by elevated blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Current hypertension guidelines recommend the use of antihypertensives belonging to the following classes: calcium channel blockers (CCB), angiotensin converting inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), diuretics, β-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), to manage hypertension. Still, a considerable number of hypertensives in Africa have their BP uncontrolled due to poor drug response and remain at the risk of CVD events. Genetic factors are a major contributing factor, accounting for 20% to 80% of individual variability in therapy and poor response. Poor response to antihypertensive drug therapy is characterised by elevated BPs and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). As a result, there have been numerous studies which have examined the role of genetic variation and its influence on antihypertensive drug response. These studies are predominantly carried out in non-African populations, including Europeans and Asians, with few or no Africans participating. It is important to note that the greatest genetic diversity is observed in African populations as well as the highest prevalence of hypertension. As a result, this warrants a need to focus on how genetic variation affects response to therapeutic interventions used to manage hypertension in African populations. In this paper, we discuss the implications of genetic diversity in CYP11B2, GRK4, NEDD4L, NPPA, SCNN1B, UMOD, CYP411, WNK, CYP3A4/5, ACE, ADBR1/2, GNB3, NOS3, B2, BEST3, SLC25A31, LRRC15 genes, and chromosome 12q loci on hypertension susceptibility and response to antihypertensive therapy. We show that African populations are poorly explored genetically, and for the few characterised genes, they exhibit qualitative and quantitative differences in the profile of pharmacogene variants when compared to other ethnic groups. We conclude by proposing prioritization of pharmacogenetics research in Africa and possible adoption of pharmacogenetic-guided therapies for hypertension in African patients. Finally, we outline the implications, challenges, and opportunities these studies present for populations of non-European descent.
Comorbidity of Anxiety and Hypertension: Common Risk Factors and Potential Mechanisms
Anxiety is more common in patients with hypertension, and these two conditions frequently coexist. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on determining etiology in patients with comorbid hypertension and anxiety. This review focuses on the common risk factors and potential mechanisms of comorbid hypertension and anxiety. Firstly, we analyze the common risk factors of comorbid hypertension and anxiety including age, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, lead, and traffic noise. The specific mechanisms underlying hypertension and anxiety were subsequently discussed, including interleukin (IL)-6 (IL-6), IL-17, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and gut dysbiosis. Increased IL-6, IL-17, and ROS accelerate the development of hypertension and anxiety. Gut dysbiosis leads to hypertension and anxiety by reducing short-chain fatty acids, vitamin D, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and increasing trimethylamine N-oxide (TAMO) and MYC. These shared risk factors and potential mechanisms may provide an effective strategy for treating and preventing hypertension and comorbid anxiety.
Summary of Known Genetic and Epigenetic Modification Contributed to Hypertension
Hypertension is a multifactorial disease due to a complex interaction among genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Characterized by raised blood pressure (BP), it is responsible for more than 7 million deaths per annum by acting as a leading preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Reports suggest that genetic factors are estimated to be involved in approximately 30 to 50% of BP variation, and epigenetic marks are known to contribute to the initiation of the disease by influencing gene expression. Consequently, elucidating the genetic and epigenetic mediators associated with hypertension is essential for better discernment of its pathophysiology. By deciphering the unprecedented molecular hypertension basis, it could help to unravel an individual’s inclination towards hypertension which eventually could result in an arrangement of potential strategies for prevention and therapy. In the present review, we discuss known genetic and epigenetic drivers that contributed to the hypertension development and summarize the novel variants that have currently been identified. The effect of these molecular alterations on endothelial function was also presented.
Intensive Blood Pressure Control and Diabetes Mellitus Incidence for Patients with Impaired Fasting Glucose: A Secondary Analysis of SPRINT
Background. Previous studies indicated that intensive blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP < 120 mm·Hg) compared with standard BP control (<140 mm·Hg) was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among hypertensive patients with normoglycemia. However, the impact of intensive BP control on the incidence of T2D for those with IFG is still unknown. Methods. This was a secondary analysis of the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) of the study. We included participants with IFG at randomization, which was defined as fasting blood glucose (FBG) between 100 and 125 mg/dL. The primary outcome was incident T2D, defined as events of reaching FBG ≥ 126 mg/dL, participant self-report T2D at annual examination, or a record of hypoglycemic medications at follow-up. The secondary outcome was incident IFG reversion (IFGR), defined as the time to first FBG back to normoglycemia (<100 mg/dl) among participants without incident T2D. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the cumulative incidence of outcomes between the two BP control groups. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results. A total of 3310 participants were included in our primary outcome analysis (median age 67 years, 29% female). There were 293 participants who developed T2D among the intensive BP control group and 256 participants who developed T2D among the standard BP control group, resulting in 56.87 (50.36–63.39) versus 49.33 (43.29–55.37) events per 1000 person-years of treatment (HR 1.18 [95% CI, 1.00–1.40], ). After excluding 549 participants who developed T2D, 2761 participants were included in our secondary outcome analysis with 559 participants who developed IFGR among the intensive BP control group and 632 participants who developed IFGR among the standard BP control group, resulting in 141.20 (129.50–152.91) versus 158.20 (145.86,170.53) events per 1000 person-years of treatment (HR 0.9 [95% CI, 0.8–1.01], ). Conclusions. Our study found that in comparison to the standard BP control for hypertensive patients with IFG, intensive BP control was associated with a small increased risk of new-onset T2D, though it did not reach statistical significance. This kind of impact should be considered when implementing the strategy, especially for those with high risks of developing T2D. This trial is registered with NCT01206062.