Cross-Sectional Relationship between Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity and Biomarkers in Vascular-Related DiseasesRead the full article
International Journal of Hypertension publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to hypertension, with a special focus on vascular biology, epidemiology, pediatric hypertension, and hypertensive nephropathy.
International Journal of Hypertension maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Childhood Hypertension in Urban-Rural Areas of China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objective. The increased blood pressure level in children and adolescents is recognized as an essential predictor of adulthood cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence and the urban-rural disparity of childhood hypertension in the southwest of China. Methods. Using stratified cluster sampling in urban and rural areas, a total of 13597 primary school children aged 6∼12 years living in the Southwest of China were included. The prevalence of hypertension was analyzed. The risk factors were collected by questionnaires, and the risk factors of childhood hypertension were analyzed by the logistic regression model. Results. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.75%, 9.02%, and 17.47% in total, urban, and rural children, respectively, and the urban-rural difference was 8.44% (95%CI: 7.32%, 9.56%). Children with obesity, maternal gestational hypertension, >10 months of breastfeeding, or low family income had a significantly increased prevalence of hypertension (29.4%, 20.00%, 16.31%, and 16.25%, respectively). Rural residence, intake of more pickle (in rural), maternal gestational hypertension (in urban), low birth weight (in rural), obesity, increased heart rate, and red blood cell counts were the risk factors of childhood hypertension. The adjusted R2 values were 13.61%, 23.25%, 10.88%, 11.12%, 12.23%, and 25.04% in the full models excluding and including serum indexes for total, urban, and rural children, respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence of childhood hypertension is significant in the Southwest of China and alarming in rural areas, which requires community intervention. Children living in rural areas combined with obesity, low social economic status, dietary imbalance, and abnormal lipid metabolism were associated with an increased risk of hypertension, and routine care programs should be conducted to prevent childhood hypertension.
Prevalence of Albuminuria in Cardiology and Endocrinology Departments and Its Influencing Factors: A Multicenter, Real-World Evidence Study in China
Aims. To evaluate the prevalence of albuminuria and compare its risk factors in diabetic and hypertensive patients. Methods. This was an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter registry across China. Consecutive patients were registered with the Cardiology and Endocrine departments in 40 centers. Clinical characteristics were collected, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured using the immunochemical method. Results. Of the 2510 patients enrolled in the study, 1515 underwent UACR testing and were included in the present analysis. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 13.0% and 16.1% while that of macroalbuminuria was 2.5% and 5.0%, in the Cardiology and Endocrinology departments, respectively. HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were independent risk factors for albuminuria. The relationship of blood pressure (BP) and HbA1c with albuminuria was continuous and graded. Compared with the reference level of SBP 130–139 mm Hg, an SBP level of <130 mmHg was significantly associated with a lower risk of albuminuria in all subjects (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.40–0.89; ) and in subjects with concomitant hypertension and diabetes (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25–0.92; ). Conclusions. In China, nearly one-fifth of patients in the Cardiology and Endocrinology departments have albuminuria although ACEI/ARB were widely used. More effective therapy is needed in this population.
Do N-Terminal Pro-C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels Relate to Severity of Preeclampsia?
Aim. To compare the plasma N-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide concentrations of normotensive pregnant women, patients with mild preeclampsia, and patients with severe preeclampsia. Methods. We collected venous blood samples from 25 normotensive pregnant women, 15 patients with mild preeclampsia, and 15 patients with severe preeclampsia. The women were at 30th to 40th weeks of gestation and in an age range of 20 to 35. The N-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide levels were measured by ELISA. Statistical comparisons were made by one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal–Wallis, and Mann–Whitney U tests. Results. The median (interquartile range-IQR) values of the N-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide were 6.48 (3.33) pmol/L in the normotensive women group, 7.37 (3.43) pmol/L in patients with mild preeclampsia, and 11.52 (6.13) pmol/L in patients with severe preeclampsia. The N-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide was significantly elevated in the severe preeclampsia study group (), whereas there was no significant difference between those with mild preeclampsia and the normotensive groups (). Conclusion. Our data indicate that the plasma concentration of the N-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide is significantly increased in patients with severe preeclampsia, but not in patients with mild preeclampsia. The severity of preeclampsia may be related to the circulating levels of the N-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide concentrations.
Blood Pressure Indices and Associated Risk Factors in a Rural West African Adult Population: Insights from an AWI-Gen Substudy in Ghana
Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are commonly used for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, and pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) can provide additional information. It is therefore important to understand the factors associated with these cardiovascular risk markers. This cross-sectional study involved 1839 men and women aged 40–60 years. Data on SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, sociodemography, lifestyle, anthropometry, and lipids were collected. Gender-stratified linear regression analyses were performed to determine the association between log-transformed blood pressure indices and the study variables. Age was associated with all measured blood pressure indices () among men and women. Men had higher SBP () and PP () than women. Nankana ethnicity was associated with higher PP levels () in the total population. Vendor meal consumption among women was associated with higher PP levels (). Fruit intake among men was associated with lower PP levels (). Currently unmarried women had higher SBP (), DBP (), MAP (), and PP () than currently married women. Pesticide exposure was negatively associated with SBP (), DBP (), MAP (), and PP () among women. Increased subcutaneous fat was associated with DBP () and MAP () among women. Among men, hip circumference was associated with higher DBP and MAP ( for both associations), subcutaneous fat associated with higher SBP (), DBP (), and MAP () and visceral fat was associated with higher PP (). In the total population, visceral fat was associated with higher DBP () and MAP (). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was positively associated with SBP (), DBP (), and MAP () for women and positively associated with SBP, DBP, and MAP ( for all three) and PP () for men. The association of blood pressure indices with modifiable risk factors suggests that targeted health interventions may reduce CVD risk in this population.
Atenolol’s Inferior Ability to Reduce Central vs Peripheral Blood Pressure Can Be Explained by the Combination of Its Heart Rate-Dependent and Heart Rate-Independent Effects
Objective. Whether the inferior ability of atenolol to reduce central (aortic) compared to peripheral (brachial) blood pressure (BP) is related to its heart rate (HR)-dependent or -independent effects, or their combination, remains unclear. To provide further mechanistic insight into this topic, we studied the acute effects of atenolol versus nebivolol and ivabradine on systolic blood pressure amplification (SBPA; peripheral systolic BP minus central systolic BP) in a model of sick sinus syndrome patients with a permanent dual-chamber cardiac pacemaker in a nonrandomized single-blind single-group clinical trial. Methods. We determined hemodynamic indices noninvasively (Sphygmocor XCEL) before and at least 3 h after administration of oral atenolol 50 or 100 mg, nebivolol 5 mg, or ivabradine 5 or 7.5 mg during atrial pacing at a low (40 bpm), middle (60 bpm), and high (90 bpm) HR level in 25 participants (mean age 65.5 years, 12 men). Results. At the low HR level, i.e., when the drugs could exert their HR-dependent and HR-independent effects on central BP, only atenolol produced a significant decrease in SBPA (mean change 0.74 ± 1.58 mmHg (95% CI, 0.09–1.40; )), indicating inferior central vs peripheral systolic BP change. However, we observed no significant change in SBPA with atenolol at the middle and high HR levels, i.e., when HR-dependent mechanisms had been eliminated by pacing. Conclusion. The findings of our trial with a mechanistic approach to the topic imply that the inferior ability of atenolol to reduce central vs peripheral BP can be explained by the combination of its heart rate-dependent and -independent effects. This trial is registered with NCT03245996.
Knowledge on Hypertension and Self-Care Practice among Adult Hypertensive Patients at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia, 2019
Background. Patients with hypertension need to be aware of various aspects of hypertension and exercise self-care. But, there is limited information regarding this issue. Objective of the Study. This study was designed to assess knowledge on hypertension and self-care practice among adult hypertensive patients in the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 hypertensive patients from April to May 2019. The study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as percentage and frequency of patients’ knowledge on hypertension and their self-care practice were computed. Cross-tabulation was used to see the frequency and percentage of selected sociodemographic variables and knowledge level with self-care practice subscales. Finally, the results were summarized and presented in texts, figures, and tables. Results. Among the study participants, 215 (56%) and 228 (59.4%) had good knowledge and self-care practice towards hypertension, respectively. The participants who had good knowledge had good self-care practice frequency. Conclusions. In this study, knowledge on hypertension was low, while self-care practice was moderate on the self-care interventions. Hence, increasing patients’ awareness and intervention on medication adherence, low salt diet consumption, physical activity, weight management, cigarette smoking cessation, and alcohol consumption reduction is important.