Article of the Year 2021
Trends in the Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in Nepal between 2000 and 2025: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisRead the full article
International Journal of Hypertension publishes original research articles, and review articles related to hypertension, with a special focus on vascular biology, epidemiology, pediatric hypertension, and hypertensive nephropathy.
Chief Editor, Professor Franco Veglio, is a Full Professor of Internal Medicine at the University of Turin, Italy.
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Combination of Oxalobacter Formigenes and Veillonella Parvula in Gastrointestinal Microbiota Related to Bile-Acid Metabolism as a Biomarker for Hypertensive Nephropathy
The human microbiome is a mixed group of microorganisms, which individually consists of 10–100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells. The relationship between gastrointestinal microbiota and blood pressure has been verified and the intestinal microbiota of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in the distribution of bacterial species is different from the flora of people with no CKD. The purpose of this research is to study the different intestinal microbiota of hypertensive patients with and without nephropathy and to find possible biomarkers of hypertensive nephropathy (H-CKD). The subjects of this research were divided into three groups, healthy control group, hypertension group, and hypertensive nephropathy group. Sequencing, bioinformatics, and statistical analysis were performed on the 16S rRNA gene of the subjects’ stool samples. This research study showed the differences of intestinal flora as biomarkers in hypertension patients with and without nephropathy; it investigated the relationship of the differences in the intestinal microbiota with bile-acid metabolism; it also explored bile-acid metabolism mechanism of intestinal microbiota differences in hypertension with or without nephropathy. In summary, the difference in the combination of O. formigenes and V. parvula in the gastrointestinal microbiota is related to bile-acid metabolism in hypertensive patients and can be one of the factors causing CKD. It is the first time to report such a biomarker or pathogenic factor of H-CKD in the world.
The Value of Four Anthropometric Indicators for Identifying Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Chinese Hypertensive Patients
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been classified separately as an independent risk factor for hypertension. However, comparisons between different body size indices and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive populations have not been reported yet. In this study, we enrolled 4,639 hypertensive patients from rural China. Anthropometric indices and cardiovascular disease risk factor variables were measured and analyzed using Spearman’s correlation, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Patients in the highest quartile of body size indices were more likely to have left ventricular hypertrophy than those in the lowest quartile; these indices were BMI (adjusted OR: 3.55, 95% CI: 2.90; 4.35), WC (adjusted OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.84; 2.70), WHR (adjusted OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18; 1.75), and WHtR (adjusted OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 2.62; 3.99). The areas under the ROC curves of BMI (AUC: 0.628, 95% CI: 0.612; 0.644), WHtR (AUC: 0.628, 95% CI: 0.560; 0.593), WHR (AUC: 0.530, 95% CI: 0.513; 0.547), and WC (AUC: 0.576, 95% CI: 0.513; 0.547) were all above 0.5, which indicated that the four anthropometric indicators may be associated with LVH. The four anthropometric indicators of obesity were identified as risk factors for LVH. Weight control might help reduce the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy.
Comparative Efficacy of Antihypertensive Agents in Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of Patients with Hypertension: Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial
Hypertension induces both structural and functional changes in blood vessels, thereby increasing endothelial dysfunction, which in turn, contributes to an increase in blood pressure. A popular and widely used noninvasive tool, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), is used to examine peripheral artery endothelium-dependent dilation. This study aimed to compare the efficacies of different classes of antihypertensive agents based on their effects on FMD. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were queried till November 1, 2020. Comparative studies on the efficacies of two or more antihypertensive agents or placebos for hypertensive patients were included. The outcomes were variations in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Two reviewers independently reviewed and filtered the literature and extracted the data; the Cochrane “risk of bias” method was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials. A network meta-analysis was performed using Stata 15.0 software with a total of 49 studies. Subgroup analysis based on age and duration of treatments was performed. As compared to the placebo group, patients receiving the antihypertensive drugs exhibited significantly enhanced FMD (ARB + CCB: 4.01%, 95% CI, 0.92–7.11%, ; ACEI + ARB: 2.81%, 95% CI, 1.19–4.43%, ; ACEI: 2.55%, 95% CI, 1.34–3.77%, ; ARB: 2.22%, 95% CI, 1.05–3.38%, ; β-blocker: 2.23%, 95% CI, 0.93–3.52%, ). In the SUCRA curve for network meta-analysis, the combination of CCB and ARB was found to be the most effective in increasing FMD (SUCRA = 89.0%), followed by ACEI monotherapy (SUCRA = 74.2%). ARB combined with CCB was superior in improving the endothelial function measured as the FMD; ACEI monotherapy was the most effective treatment among the antihypertension medications. There were no significant differences between antihypertensive drug-based monotherapies.
Self-Monitoring Home Blood Pressure in Community-Dwelling Older People: Age Differences in White-Coat and Masked Phenomena and Related Factors—The SONIC Study
Some studies reported that home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring was conducted by community-dwelling older people themselves, but there have been few studies on HBP including very old populations aged over 90 years old. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify the current situation of white-coat and masked phenomena defined by on-site and home BP measurements in community-dwelling old and oldest-old populations. The study subjects were 380 participants from the SONIC study, a cohort study of a community-dwelling old population, who measured their HBP in a series of 3–5 days by themselves and brought their HBP records to the venue on the survey day. Study participants’ characteristics were as follows: female, 185 (48.7%); male, 195 (51.3%); 70s, 95 (25.0%); 80s, 245 (64.5%); and 90s, 40 (10.5%). A total of 344 (90.5%) participants had hypertension. A total of 291 (76.6%) hypertensive participants taking antihypertensive medication were analyzed in the present study. Regarding the types of hypertension defined by home and on-site BP, they showed white-coat phenomenon, 183 (48.2%); masked phenomenon, 115 (30.3%); sustained hypertension, 130 (34.2%); and normotension, 82 (21.6%). On comparison of age groups, there was a tendency for the white-coat phenomenon to be common in young-old people in their 70s and the masked phenomenon to be common in very old people in their 90s. Therefore, since the detection of white-coat and masked phenomena is closely associated with appropriate BP management, it is very important for community-dwelling older populations to self-monitor HBP.
Factors Affecting ICU Stay and Length of Stay in the ICU in Patients with HELLP Syndrome in a Tertiary Referral Hospital
Objective. The study aimed to compare patients with HELLP syndrome who require intensive care and who do not require intensive care and evaluate the factors affecting the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Methods. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: requiring intensive care (group 1) and not requiring intensive care (group 2). The data of both groups were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, transfusion amounts, length of stay in the intensive care unit, maternal complications, and mortality. Results. 14032 births in a tertiary center between 2011 and 2018 were evaluated in this study. During the study period, 342 patients were diagnosed with HELLP, and 32 (9.4%) of these were followed up in the intensive care unit. The length of stay in the intensive care unit was determined as 8.1 (7.2) days on average. Fresh frozen plasma, erythrocyte suspension, apheresis, and random thrombocyte transfusion were observed to be significantly more in group 1 patients. In the regression analysis, the most effective factor was found to be erythrocyte suspension and the length of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly longer in patients who had erythrocyte suspension transfusion. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the area under the curve value for erythrocyte transfusion was 70.6%. When the cutoff value of erythrocyte suspension was 450 (95% CI: 365–681) ml, the sensitivity was 43.8% and the specificity was 91.6%. Conclusion. We think that physicians should be careful that maternal morbidity and mortality may increase as the need for erythrocyte suspension transfusion increases in patients with HELLP syndrome. Minimum transfusion to hemodynamically stable patients can be more suitable in terms of morbidity and mortality in managing patients with HELLP syndrome requiring erythrocyte suspension transfusion. Precautions and measures should be taken in this regard.
Evaluation of Relationship between Serum Liver Enzymes and Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study Based on Data from Rafsanjan Cohort Study
Background. Hypertension as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases is among the leading causes of death worldwide. The relationship between elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and hypertension has been reported in limited studies, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature on this issue in the southeast of Iran. Our investigation aimed at evaluating the relation between ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP with hypertension in the Rafsanjan Cohort Study, a city in Kerman Province, Iran. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used data obtained from the Rafsanjan Cohort Study (RCS), as a part of the prospective epidemiological research studies in Iran (PERSIAN). The association of the liver enzymes levels with hypertension was investigated using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results. Among 9930 participants, the mean age (±SD) was 49.94 (±9.56) years, and 46.56% were men. The odds of abnormal blood pressure significantly increased along with the higher levels of ALT, GGT, and ALP which remained significant only for ALP after adjustment for all confounding variables in both males and females (OR in males: 1.36, 95% CI = 1.09–1.69, OR in females: 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01–1.54). In subjects with normal levels of ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP, dose-response increases were observed for abnormal blood pressure in both genders. Finally, we found that, among liver enzymes, only elevated ALP was significantly correlated with the odds of stage 1 hypertension and stage 2 hypertension for both genders. Conclusions. In subjects with normal levels of ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP, dose-response increases were observed for abnormal blood pressure in both genders. Increased serum ALP activity was positively associated with increased odds of hypertension in males and females. Therefore, increased ALP could be an early indicator of hypertension.