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International Journal of Hypertension publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to hypertension, with a special focus on vascular biology, epidemiology, pediatric hypertension, and hypertensive nephropathy.
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Modification of Platelet Count on the Association between Homocysteine and Blood Pressure: A Moderation Analysis in Chinese Hypertensive Patients
Background. Platelet consumption followed by homocysteine-induced endothelial injury suggests a crosstalk between platelet activation and homocysteine on hypertension. Platelet count has been found to modify the effect of folic acid on vascular health. However, whether platelet count could modify the contribution of homocysteine to blood pressure (BP) remains unclear. Methods. Leveraging a community-based cross-sectional survey in 30,369 Chinese hypertensive patients (mean age 62 years, 52% female), we examined the moderation of platelet count on the association between serum homocysteine and BP by constructing hierarchical multiple regression models, adjusting for conventional risk factors. If adding the interaction term of homocysteine and platelet count could explain more variance in BP and the interaction is significant, then we believe that moderation is occurring. Results. The association between serum homocysteine and diastolic BP was significantly stronger (β = 0.092 vs. 0.035, ) in participants with low platelet count (<210 × 109/L) than in those with high platelet count (≥210 × 109/L). Adding the interaction term of homocysteine and platelet count additionally explained 0.05% of the variance in diastolic BP (), and the interaction was significant (β = −0.021, ). Excluding participants receiving antihypertensive medications did not change our results. Conclusions. The association between homocysteine and BP was significantly stronger in participants with low vs. high platelet count and was partially moderated by platelet count. These results indicate that platelet count may be useful in the identification of individuals who are most beneficial to reducing-homocysteine treatments but this usefullness still needs further investigation.
Analysis of Association of Occupational Physical Activity, Leisure-Time Physical Activity, and Sedentary Lifestyle with Hypertension according to the Adherence with Aerobic Activity in Women Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016-2017 Data
Purpose. We investigated the association between occupational physical activity, leisure-time physical activity, and sedentary lifestyle with hypertension by adherence with aerobic exercise in middle-aged and elderly women. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationally representative data between 2016 and 2017. A total of 4,241 women aged 40 years or older were included. Hypertension diagnosed by physician and exercise status was asked by questionnaires. Results. Mean age of the participants was 58.4 (±11.4, range: 40∼80 years). There were 1,681 (39.6%) women in the aerobic activity adherence group. In the logistic regression analysis with adjustment for confounding factors, frequency of occupational physical activity (OPA) level (OR 1.931; , in ≤4 per week group), walking frequency (OR 0.436; , in 5∼7 days per week walking group compared with never walking group) in the aerobic activity adherence group, sitting hours (OR 1.849; 95% CI: 1.279–2.673, , in 13 hours or longer group compared with 6 hours or less sitting hours group), and muscle strengthening exercises (OR 0.554; 95% CI: 0.353–0.870, , 1∼4 days per week compared with never) in the nonadherence group were significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusions. In the aerobic activity adherence group, further research is needed to identify the influence of occupational physical activity. In the aerobic activity nonadherence group, decreasing sitting hours and increasing endurance exercise may be helpful.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Gene Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Hypertension in a Rural Population
Hypertension remains a public health burden despite advances in its management. Hence, the search for further risk stratification tools and prevention and new treatment approaches continues. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is associated with hypertension. Interestingly, riboflavin, as a cofactor of MTHFR, may control blood pressure in patients with mutant MTHFR variants. These double benefits of a risk stratification tool and treatment approach make it interesting. Because this polymorphism depends on ethnicity and geographic region, we aimed to determine the association between MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and hypertension in a rural Indonesian-Sundanese population. This population-based case-control study included 213 hypertensive subjects and 202 nonhypertensive subjects as controls. The TaqMan assay was used to determine the MTHFR C677T genotypes. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the risk of association. There was a significant difference in MTHFR C677T allele frequencies between the hypertensive and control groups (62.9% CC, 34.3% CT, 2.8% TT vs. 77.7% CC, 20.8% CT, 1.5% TT; ) and between mutant (TT and CT) and wild-type genotypes (CC) (). The mutant genotype was associated with a risk of hypertension (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3–3.5) when adjusted for age, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes mellitus. The mutant of the MTHFR C677T gene increases the risk of hypertension in rural Indonesian-Sundanese population. These findings may be used in future studies to evaluate the effect of riboflavin supplementation in this population.
Morphological and Functional Characteristics of Animal Models of Myocardial Fibrosis Induced by Pressure Overload
Myocardial fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of myocardial interstitial collagen, abnormal distribution, and excessive proliferation of fibroblasts. According to the researches in recent years, myocardial fibrosis, as the pathological basis of various cardiovascular diseases, has been proven to be a core determinant in ventricular remodeling. Pressure load is one of the causes of myocardial fibrosis. In experimental models of pressure-overload-induced myocardial fibrosis, significant increase in left ventricular parameters such as interventricular septal thickness and left ventricular posterior wall thickness and the decrease of ejection fraction are some of the manifestations of cardiac damage. These morphological and functional changes have a serious impact on the maintenance of physiological functions. Therefore, establishing a suitable myocardial fibrosis model is the basis of its pathogenesis research. This paper will discuss the methods of establishing myocardial fibrosis model and compare the advantages and disadvantages of the models in order to provide a strong basis for establishing a myocardial fibrosis model.
Association between Plasma Urotensin II and Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Prospective Study
Up to date, human urotensin II (UII) is the most potent vasoconstrictor in mammalian animals. To explore whether UII played an important role in the development of hypertension, we conducted a prospective study in Changshu city, China. The baseline investigation was carried out in 2007, and the first follow-up investigation was conducted in 2013. From the participants, we randomly obtained 2000 normotensive subjects aged 40 years and older without any severe disease at baseline and examined plasma UII and endothelin-1 (ET-1) with their blood samples at baseline. Logistic models were used to analyze the association between baseline UII, baseline ET-1, and newly occurring hypertension. In 1,819 subjects with complete data, 723 subjects developed into hypertensive in about five years. After adjusting some potential confounders, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for risk of hypertension comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of baseline UII was 0.888 (0.689–1.144). The role of UII in the development of hypertension was not found in the current study; therefore, further research studies should be conducted to explore the relationship between UII and hypertension.
Resveratrol Supplementation Prevents Hypertension in Hypertensive Pregnant Rats by Increasing Sodium Excretion and Serum Nitric Oxide Level
Background. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy worldwide. This study was designed to study the blood pressure-lowering effect of resveratrol (RES) in a salt-induced hypertensive pregnant rat model. Methods. Forty female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into 4 groups: Normal Preg (0.9% salt diet), Normal Preg + RES (0.9% salt diet plus daily oral RES for 4 weeks), Salt Preg (8% salt diet), and Salt Preg + RES (8% salt diet plus daily oral RES for 4 weeks). Noninvasive blood pressure was recorded on gestational days 7 and 14. On the gestational day 19, foetuses were weighed, and blood and urine samples were harvested for electrolytes and biochemical assays. Results. RES significantly reduced SBP, DBP, and MAP on gestational days 7 and 14 in the Salt Preg + RES group compared to the Salt Preg group (all ). Compared to the Salt Preg group, the foetal weight, serum NO level, urinary sodium, and 24 hour urine volume were significantly increased in the Salt Preg + RES group (all ). On the contrary, the levels of serum urea, serum creatinine, and urinary protein were significantly decreased in the Salt Preg + RES group compared to the Salt Preg group (all ). Conclusions. RES decreases blood pressure in a hypertensive pregnant rat model. Increasing sodium excretion and serum nitric oxide level might be, at least part of, the underlying mechanisms.