Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2011, Article ID 340929, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/340929
Research Article

Resistant Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Primary-Care Setting

1Brooklyn Center for Health Disparities, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, P.O. Box 1199, Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA
2Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, P.O. Box 1199, Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA
3Department of Family Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, P.O. Box 1199, Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA
4Department of Endocrinology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, P.O. Box 1199, Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA
5Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Division of Internal Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA

Received 14 February 2011; Accepted 28 March 2011

Academic Editor: Adam T. Whaley-Connell

Copyright © 2011 M. Demede et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We ascertained the prevalence of resistant hypertension (RH) among blacks and determined whether RH patients are at greater risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than hypertensives. Method. Data emanated from Metabolic Syndrome Outcome Study (MetSO), a study investigating metabolic syndrome among blacks in the primary-care setting. Sample of 200 patients (mean age = 63 ± 13 years; female = 61%) with a diagnosis of hypertension provided subjective and clinical data. RH was defined using the JNC 7and European Society guidelines. We assessed OSA risk using the Apnea Risk Evaluation System ARES), defining high risk as a total ARES score ≥6. Results. Overall, 26% met criteria for RH and 40% were at high OSA risk. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for effects of age, gender, and medical co morbidities, showed that patients with RH were nearly 2.5 times more likely to be at high OSA risk, relative to those with hypertension (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.03–5.88, . Conclusion. Our findings show that the prevalence of RH among blacks fell within the range of RH for the general hypertensive population (3–29%). However, patients with RH were at significantly greater risk of OSA compared to patients with hypertension.