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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2011, Article ID 438198, 4 pages

Difficult-to-Treat or Resistant Hypertension: Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Innovative Therapies

1Cardiovascular Research, VA Medical Center, 50 Irving Street NW, Washington, DC 20422, USA
2First Cardiology Clinic, Hippokration Hospital, University of Athens, 114 Vassilissis Sofias Avenue, Athens 11527, Greece
3Division of Cardiology, Temple University School of Medicine; Clinical Campus, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA
4Trinity Hypertension Research Institute and Metabolic Research Institute, Punzi Medical Center, Carrollton, TX 75006, USA
5Department of Family and Community Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA

Received 23 March 2011; Accepted 23 March 2011

Copyright © 2011 Vasilios Papademetriou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Despite the many therapeutic options available today for the treatment of hypertension, a sizable number of patients still remain resistant to treatment. The prevalence of resistant hypertension in the general population under optimal conditions is about 3–5%. Although several factors and conditions can be identified and corrected a percentage of hypertensive patients remain with unacceptably high blood pressure levels. The high prevalence of hypertension in the general population renders this small percentage significant, in terms of actual patient numbers. This special issue of the journal expoars a whole spectrum of topics related to resistant hypertension: several articles address pathophysiolog and secondary causes of resistant hypertension and modern approaches to therapy. Of interest is the referance to the newer interventional approaches, that is, Baroreceptor stimulation therapy and catheter based sympathetic renal denervation.