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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 495349, 10 pages
Review Article

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Major Risk Factor in Patients with Hypertension: Update and Practical Clinical Applications

Prairie Cardiovascular Consultants, Ltd., 619 E. Mason Street, Ste. 4P57, Springfield, IL 62701, USA

Received 15 February 2011; Accepted 19 April 2011

Academic Editor: Amgad N. Makaryus

Copyright © 2011 Richard E. Katholi and Daniel M. Couri. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Left ventricular hypertrophy is a maladaptive response to chronic pressure overload and an important risk factor for atrial fibrillation, diastolic heart failure, systolic heart failure, and sudden death in patients with hypertension. Since not all patients with hypertension develop left ventricular hypertrophy, there are clinical findings that should be kept in mind that may alert the physician to the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy so a more definitive evaluation can be performed using an echocardiogram or cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Controlling arterial pressure, sodium restriction, and weight loss independently facilitate the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Choice of antihypertensive agents may be important when treating a patient with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers followed by calcium channel antagonists most rapidly facilitate the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. With the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic function and coronary flow reserve usually improve, and cardiovascular risk decreases.