Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 563657, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/563657
Review Article

The Impact of Hypertension on Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

Intensive Cardiac Care Unit, Careggi Hospital, Viale Morgagni 85, 50184 Florence, Italy

Received 11 February 2011; Revised 15 April 2011; Accepted 19 April 2011

Academic Editor: Amgad N. Makaryus

Copyright © 2011 Claudio Picariello et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. J. Dzau, “Atherosclerosis and hypertension: mechanisms and interrelationships,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 15, supplement 5, pp. S59–S64, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. M. Murabito, R. B. D'Agostino, H. Silbershatz, and P. W. F. Wilson, “Intermittent claudication: a risk profile from the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 44–49, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Lewington, R. Clarke, N. Qizilbash, R. Peto, and R. Collins, “Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies,” Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9349, pp. 1903–1913, 2002, Erratum in: Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9362, p. 106, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. Adamczak, M. Zeier, R. Dikow, and E. Ritz, “Kidney and hypertension,” Kidney International, Supplement, vol. 61, no. 80, pp. S62–S67, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Levy, P. W. F. Wilson, K. M. Anderson, and W. P. Castelli, “Stratifying the patient at risk from coronary disease: new insights from the Framingham Heart Study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 119, no. 3, part 2, pp. 712–717, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. M. Richards, M. G. Nicholls, R. W. Troughton et al., “Antecedent hypertension and heart failure after myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1182–1188, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Miura, M. L. Daviglus, A. R. Dyer et al., “Relationship of blood pressure to 25-year mortality due to coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and all causes in young adult men: the chicago heart association detection project in industry,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 12, pp. 1501–1508, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. N. Willich, J. Müller-Nordhorn, M. Kulig et al., “Cardiac risk factors, medication, and recurrent clinical events after acute coronary disease: a prospective cohort study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 307–313, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  9. P. S. Yusuf, S. Hawken, S. Ôunpuu et al., “Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study,” Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9438, pp. 937–952, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  10. J. J. Thune, J. Signorovitch, L. Kober et al., “Effect of antecedent hypertension and follow-up blood pressure on outcomes after high-risk myocardial infarction,” Hypertension, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 48–54, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. R. Dumaine, C. M. Gibson, S. A. Murphy et al., “Association of a history of systemic hypertension with mortality, thrombotic, and bleeding complications following non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 315–322, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  12. V. L. Burt, P. Whelton, E. J. Roccella et al., “Prevalence of hypertension in the US adult population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991,” Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 305–313, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Wolf-Maier, R. S. Cooper, J. R. Banegas et al., “Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 18, pp. 2363–2369, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. E. Topol, R. Califf, F. Van de Werf et al., “An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 10, pp. 673–682, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. C. Fresco, F. Avanzini, S. Bosi et al., “Prognostic value of a history of hypertension in 11,483 patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. GISSI-2 Investigators. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della, Sopravvivena nell'Infarto Miocardico,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 743–750, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  16. A. El-Menyar, M. Zubaid, A. Shehab et al., “Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular risk factors among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome in the middle east,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. W. M. Ali, M. Zubaid, A. El-Menyar et al., “The prevalence and outcome of hypertension in patients with acute coronary syndrome in six Middle-Eastern countries,” Blood Pressure, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. C. G. Frazier, S. H. Shah, P. W. Armstrong et al., “Prevalence and management of hypertension in acute coronary syndrome patients varies by sex: observations from the Sibrafiban versus aspirin to Yield Maximum Protection from ischemic Heart events postacute cOroNary sYndromes (SYMPHONY) randomized clinical trials,” American Heart Journal, vol. 150, no. 6, pp. 1260–1267, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. V. Bertomeu, A. Cabadés, P. Morillas et al., “Clinical course of acute myocardial infarction in the hypertensive patient in Eastern Spain: the PRIMVAC registry,” Heart and Lung: Journal of Acute and Critical Care, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. C. Lazzeri, S. Valente, M. Chiostri, C. Picariello, and G. F. Gensini, “Uric acid in the early risk stratification of ST-elevation myocardial infarction,” Internal and Emergency Medicine, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. F. D'Ascenzo, A. Gonella, G. Quadri et al., “Comparison of mortality rates in women versus men presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 651–654, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. D. Hasdai, S. Behar, L. Wallentin et al., “A prospective survey of the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin: the Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes (Euro Heart Survey ACS),” European Heart Journal, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1190–1201, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Rakugi, H. Yu, A. Kamitani et al., “Links between hypertension and myocardial infarction,” American Heart Journal, vol. 132, no. 1, part 2, pp. 213–221, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Hata, C. Namikawa, M. Sasaki et al., “Angiotensinogen as a risk factor for essential hypertension in Japan,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 1285–1287, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Iwai, H. Shimoike, N. Ohmichi, and M. Kinoshita, “Angiotensinogen gene and blood pressure in the Japanese population,” Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 4, part 2, pp. 688–693, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. R. Sowers, P. R. Standley, J. L. Ram, S. Jacober, L. Simpson, and K. Rose, “Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia: contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 6, no. 7, part 2, pp. 260S–270S, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Lazzeri, A. Sori, M. Chiostri, G. F. Gensini, and S. Valente, “Prognostic role of insulin resistance as assessed by homeostatic model assessment index in the acute phase of myocardial infarction in nondiabetic patients submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 856–862, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. S. Julius, “Sympathetic hyperactivity and coronary risk in hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 21, no. 6, part 2, pp. 886–893, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  29. V. J. Dzau and R. Re, “Tissue angiotensin system in cardiovascular medicine: a paradigm shift?” Circulation, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 493–498, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Ohishi, H. Rakugi, T. Ogihara, H. Schunkert, H. W. Hense, and G. A. J. Riegger, “Association between a deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene and left ventricular hypertrophy,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 331, no. 16, pp. 1097–1098, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. E. Casiglia, A. Mazza, V. Tikhonoff et al., “Weak effect of hypertension and other classic risk factors in the elderly who have already paid their toll,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 21–31, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Y. H. Lip, D. C. Felmeden, F. L. Li-Saw-Hee, and D. G. Beevers, “Hypertensive heart disease: a complex syndrome or a hypertensive 'cardiomyopathy'?” European Heart Journal, vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1653–1665, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. H. D. Sesso, J. E. Buring, N. Rifai, G. J. Blake, J. M. Gaziano, and P. M. Ridker, “C-reactive protein and the risk of developing hypertension,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 22, pp. 2945–2951, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. J. Redón, M. R. Oliva, C. Tormos et al., “Antioxidant activities and oxidative stress byproducts in human hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1096–1101, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. M. Rembek, A. Goch, and J. Goch, “The clinical course of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension,” Kardiologia Polska, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Al Suwaidi, D. N. Reddan, K. Williams et al., “Prognostic implications of abnormalities in renal function in patients with acute coronary syndromes,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 8, pp. 974–980, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. N. S. Anavekar, J. J. V. McMurray, E. J. Velazquez et al., “Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 13, pp. 1285–1295, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. H. Thiele, L. Hildebrand, C. Schirdewahn et al., “Impact of high-dose N-acetylcysteine versus placebo on contrast-induced nephropathy and myocardial reperfusion injury in unselected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The LIPSIA-N-ACC (Prospective, Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Leipzig Immediate PercutaneouS Coronary Intervention Acute Myocardial Infarction N-ACC) Trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 20, pp. 2201–2209, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. S. Valente, C. Lazzeri, C. Giglioli et al., “Contrast-induced nephropathy in urgent coronary interventions,” Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 737–741, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. R. C. Becker, J. M. Gore, C. Lambrew et al., “A composite view of cardiac rupture in the United States National Registry of Myocardial Infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1321–1326, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Valente, C. Lazzeri, S. Vecchio et al., “Predictors of in-hospital mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention for cardiogenic shock,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 176–182, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. J. S. Hochman, L. A. Sleeper, J. G. Webb et al., “Early revascularization in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 9, pp. 625–634, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. S. Valente, C. Lazzeri, M. Chiostri, M. Zucchini, C. Giglioli, and G. F. Gensini, “Intra-aortic balloon pump in intensive cardiac care: a registry in Florence,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 238–239, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  44. J. Figueras, J. Cortadellas, F. Calvo, and J. Soler-Soler, “Relevance of delayed hospital admission on development of cardiac rupture during acute myocardial infarction: study in 225 patients with free wall, septal or papillary muscle rupture,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 135–139, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Birnbaum, A. J. Chamoun, A. Anzuini, S. D. Lick, M. Ahmad, and B. F. Uretsky, “Ventricular free wall rupture following acute myocardial infarction,” Coronary Artery Disease, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 463–470, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. Mauri, A. P. Maggioni, M. G. Franzosi et al., “A simple electrocardiographic predictor of the outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with a thrombolytic agent. A Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI-2)-Derived Analysis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 600–607, 1995, Erratum in: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 25, no. 3, p. 805, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. G. Abrignani, L. J. Dominguez, G. Biondo et al., “In-hospital complications of acute myocardial infarction in hypertensive subjects,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 18, no. 2, part 1, pp. 165–170, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. S. Valente, C. Lazzeri, M. Chiostri, A. Sori, C. Giglioli, and G. F. Gensini, “Prior and new onset anemia in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a different prognostic role?” Internal and Emergency Medicine, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. C. Lazzeri, S. Valente, M. Chiostri, C. Picariello, and G. F. Gensini, “Predictors of the early outcome in elderly patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty: a single center experience,” Internal and Emergency Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  50. G. L. Min, H. J. Myung, Y. Ahn et al., “Comparison of clinical outcomes following acute myocardial infarctions in hypertensive patients with or without diabetes,” Korean Circulation Journal, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 243–250, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. D. G. Kang, M. H. Jeong, Y. Ahn et al., “Clinical effects of hypertension on the mortality of patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 800–806, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. R. B. Devereux and M. J. Roman, “Inter-relationships between hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary heart disease,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. S3–S9, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  53. P. E. Aylward, R. G. Wilcox, J. H. Horgan et al., “Relation of increased arterial blood pressure to mortality and stroke in the context of contemporary thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a randomized trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 125, no. 11, pp. 891–900, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  54. S. K. Majahalme, D. E. Smith, J. V. Cooper et al., “Comparison of patients with acute coronary syndrome with and without systemic hypertension,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 258–263, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Jonas, E. Grossman, V. Boyko, S. Behar, H. Hod, and H. Reicher-Reiss, “Relation of early and one-year outcome after acute myocardial infarction to systemic arterial blood pressure on admission,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 162–165, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Bangalore, J. Qin, S. Sloan, S. A. Murphy, and C. P. Cannon, “What is the optimal blood pressure in patients after acute coronary syndromes?: relationship of blood pressure and cardiovascular events in the pravastatin or atorvastatin evaluation and infection therapy-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (PROVE IT-TIMI) 22 trial,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 21, pp. 2142–2151, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  57. T. C. Gibson, “Blood pressure levels in acute myocardial infarction,” American Heart Journal, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 475–480, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus