Review Article

Adrenocortical Causes of Hypertension

Table 2

Adrenocortical causes of hypertension.

      Low renin and high aldosterone

Primary aldosteronism
   (1) Aldosterone producing adenomas(APA)—35% of cases
   (2) Bilateral idiopathic hyperplasia(IHA)—60% of cases
   (3) Primary adrenal hyperplasia—2% of cases
   (4) Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma—<1% of cases
   (5) Familial Hyperaldosteronism(FH)
       (i) Glucocorticoid-remediable Aldosteronism(FH type I)—<1% of cases
       (ii) FH type II(APA or IHA)—<2% of cases
  (6) Ectopic aldosterone producing adenoma or carcinoma-<0.1% of cases

     Low renin and low aldosterone

   (1) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
     11β-hydroxylase deficiency
     17α-hydroxylase deficiency
   (2) Deoxycorticosterone producing tumor
   (3) Primary cortisol resistance
    (4) Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (Genetic or Acquired)
    (5) Cushing’s syndrome and Cushing’s disease