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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2012, Article ID 274851, 8 pages
Clinical Study

Cognitive Functions and Cognitive Reserve in Relation to Blood Pressure Components in a Population-Based Cohort Aged 53 to 94 Years

1Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani, 2-VIII Floor, 35128 Padova, Italy
2Department of Geriatrics, Hospital of Schio, 36015 Schio, Italy
3Department of Cardiology, Hospital of Thiene, 36016 Thiene, Italy
4General Direction, Hospital of Verona, 37126 Verona, Italy
5Nephrology Clinic, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
6Department of Medicine, Hospital of Rovigo, 45100 Rovigo, Italy
7Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy

Received 24 October 2011; Accepted 12 January 2012

Academic Editor: Rhian Touyz

Copyright © 2012 Nunzia Giordano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In 288 men and women from general population in a cross-sectional survey, all neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT) were less efficient than the normotensives (NT) in the test of memory with interference at 10 sec (MI-10) (−33%, ), clock drawing test (CLOX) (−28%, ), and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (−6%, ). Lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were predicted by higher systolic (odds ratio, OR, 0.97, ; OR 0.98, ; OR 0.95, ) and higher pulse blood pressure (BP) (OR 0.97, ; OR 0.97, ; and 0.95, ). The cognitive reserve index (CRI) was 6% lower in the HT () and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.82, ). The BP vectors of lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were directed towards higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, that of low CRI towards higher systolic and lower diastolic. The label of hypertension and higher values of systolic or pulse BP are associated to worse memory and executive functions. Higher diastolic BP, although insufficient to impair cognition, strengthens this association. CRI is predicted by higher systolic BP associated to lower diastolic BP.