70 (normotensive, female posttreatment cancer patients, age ≥18)
8 wk. MBSR
3 readings taken at 3-min. intervals
Not randomized, NR if blinded
Clinical psychologist with over 10 yrs. of experience
No significant difference in BP between MBSR group and control; when patients were analyzed by “higher BP" and “lower BP" groups based on BP readings at week 1, “higher BP" MBSR participants had lower SBP compared to controls at week 8
60 (African American adults, aged >20 years; with high normal BP of 130–139/80-85, stage 1 hypertension BP of 140–159/90–99, or stage II hypertension BP of 160–179/100–109)
TM for 6–9 mos. (average intervention period of mos.)
Active (CVD risk factor prevention education program)
3 readings taken at each of 3 consecutive visits (last 2 visits were averaged)
Certified instructors from the African American community
Both groups had significant decreases in BP (TM group by mm Hg SBP and mm Hg DBP, control group by SBP and DBP), but only the BP decrease in TM group was associated with corresponding decrease in carotid intima-media thickness)
298 (university students, BP <140/90 and > 90/60 mm Hg, with 159 in a hypertension risk subgroup for having SBP>130 mm Hg, DBP>85 mm Hg, or other risk factors)
TM for 3 mos.
3 readings taken at 1-min. intervals (last 2 readings were averaged)
Research staff and TM instructional staff
In the hypertension risk subgroup, TM significantly reduced SBP by 5.0 mm Hg and DBP by 2.8 mm Hg; reductions in overall sample were not significant. TM produced significant improvements in total psychological distress, anxiety, depression, anger/hostility, and coping.
72 (elderly retirement-age adults, mean age of 81 yrs.)
TM, mindfulness training (MF), or mental relaxation
3 readings taken at 2-min. intervals (only SBP reported)
21 trained instructors (professionals, graduate students, and college seniors)
TM decreased SBP by 12.4 mm Hg (greatest decrease of all groups), and survival rate was 100% (compared to the second highest, 87.5% in MF) after 3 yrs.
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