International Journal of Hypertension / 2013 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

Table 3

Association between serum cotinine levels and prehypertension, by gender.

Serum cotinine quartilesNo. at riskCasesAge-adjusted odds ratio
(95% CI)
Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio
(95% CI)*

Men
 Quartile 1 (≤0.024 ng/mL)192741 (referent)1 (referent)
 Quartile 2 (0.025–0.054 ng/mL)2281081.59 (1.00, 2.54)1.62 (1.00, 2.62)
 Quartile 3 (0.055–0.223 ng/mL)2251051.85 (1.06, 3.22)1.82 (1.02, 3.23)
 Quartile 4 (≥0.224 ng/mL)2731361.87 (1.15, 3.04)1.80 (1.09, 2.98)
P trend0.02090.0406
Women
 Quartile 1 (≤0.024 ng/mL)296911 (referent)1 (referent)
 Quartile 2 (0.025–0.054 ng/mL)296800.89 (0.58, 1.37)0.86 (0.57, 1.29)
 Quartile 3 (0.055–0.223 ng/mL)283801.23 (0.80, 1.92)1.14 (0.71, 1.81)
 Quartile 4 (≥0.224 ng/mL)234601.17 (0.75, 1.83)1.02 (0.64, 1.63)
P trend0.24130.6185

*Adjusted for age (years), ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican Americans, others), education categories (<high school, high school, >high school), drinking (never drinker, former drinker, 1 or 2 drink/day, ≥3 drinks/day), BMI (normal weight, overweight, obese), glycohemoglobin (%), total cholesterol (mg/dL), below poverty level (%), and hormone use (ever, never).
P interaction of cotinine quartiles and gender = 0.0303.