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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2013, Article ID 419208, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/419208
Research Article

Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in a Cohort of Children Referred with Suspected Hypertension: Characteristics of Children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

1Alberta Children’s Hospital, Division of Paediatric Nephrology, University of Calgary, 2888 Shaganappi Trail NW, Calgary, AB, Canada
2The O'Brien Centre for the Bachelor of Health Sciences Program (BHSc), University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

Received 3 May 2013; Accepted 4 July 2013

Academic Editor: Roberto Pontremoli

Copyright © 2013 Silviu Grisaru et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Childhood hypertension’s increasing prevalence has generally been linked to the obesity epidemic. We observed that a significant proportion of children referred to our pediatric center with documented office hypertension are nonobese and have a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To define the extent of this anecdotal observation, we performed a retrospective analysis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) tests which in our center are routinely performed in newly referred children suspected of hypertension. Twenty-one percent (48 of 227 new referrals) had a history of ADHD, and 81% of them were treated with psychostimulant medications at the time of their ABPM test. Children in this group had a significantly lower average BMI z-score compared with the rest of the children (0.18 versus 0.75) and were significantly more likely to have abnormally elevated wake systolic loads on ABPM (38% versus 4%). The overall proportion of children with any abnormality on ABPM was comparable in both groups (46% versus 40%). Conclusion. A significant proportion of children suspected of hypertension have ADHD which may be related to higher wake systolic BP values. The prevalence of hypertension among children with ADHD will have to be determined in prospective studies.