International Journal of Hypertension / 2013 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Inflammation and Hypertension: Are There Regional Differences?

Table 3

Pro-inflammatory cytokines in children and adolescents.

Study
(Author and Ref)
SubjectsMarkerResultsComments

López-Jaramillo, et al.
[27]
325 schoolchildren (mean age, 10.0 years) from ColombiaCRPMean (mg/dL) ± SD
Boys: 1.2 ± 2.6
Girls: 1.5 ± 2.0
BMI: 15
0.6 ± 0.9
BMI: 17
1.1 ± 2.2
BMI: 21
1.9 ± 3.7
CRP levels correlate significantly with BMI. ( ).

Gillum
[83]
996 Mexican American children aged 6–11 years.CRPDetectable CRP was seen in 34.7% of overweight children but only 6.8% of other children ( , RR = 5.12, 95% CI: 3.32–7.90).CRP levels correlate significantly with BMI. ( ).

Visser et al.
[84]
3512 American children (8 to 16 years of age).CRPPercentile value CRP (mg/dL)
CRP (4–11 years of age: >0.37 mg/dL for boys >0.68 mg/dL for girls
Based on the BMI
For overweight girls: 5.59 (95% CI: 2.20–14.22)
For overweight boys: 6.12 (95% CI: 1.23–30.52)
CRP levels correlate significantly with BMI. ( ).

Cook et al.
[28]
699 (10 to 11 years of age) multiethnic study in children.CRPMedian mg/L
All groups: 0.15 (IQ 0.06–0.47)
South Asian: 2.40 (1.42, 4.04)
Other: 0.82 (0.35, 1.87)
CRP was strongly related to adiposity (95% CI, 155–439%) and was higher in South Asian children.

Ford
[29]
3348 White, Black and Mexican-American US children and young adults.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000,
CRP Median
White: 1.6 mg/L
Black: 1.7 mg/L
Mexican-American: 1.5 mg/L
Other: 1.8 mg/L
No significant differences between ethnicities.

Aeberli et al. [30]33 Swiss children (6 to 14 years of age). Normal-weight ( ),
overweight ( ),
and obese ( )
CRP CRP median (mg/dL)
IL-6 (pg/mL)
TNF-α (pg/mL)
Overweight: 0.03 (0.01–0.42)
Obese: 0.10 (0.03–0.23)
CRP, IL-6 increased significantly ( ) with increasing adiposity, independent of age.
IL-6Overweight: 0.34 (0.05–1.81)
Obese: 0.41 (0.14–2.00)
TNF-αOverweight: 6.3 (4.2–11.8)
Obese: 7.2 (4.1–21.8)

Weiss et al.
[85]
439 White, Black and Hispanic, obese, overweight and nonobese American children and adolescents. CRP
Mean CRP (mg/dL),
IL-6 (pg/mL)
Blacks moderately obese: 0.13
Severely obese: 0.32
Whites moderately obese: 0.12
Severely obese: 0.31
Hispanics moderately obese: 0.13
Severely obese: 0.35
Interleukin-6 and CRP were significantly related to the degree of obesity ( )
IL-6Blacks moderately obese: 1.89
Severely obese: 2.36
Whites moderately obese: 1.59
Severely obese: 1.80
Hispanics moderately obese: 2.07
Severely obese: 3.09

Vikram et al.
[86]
62 Indian adolescentsCRPMean (mg/dL) ± SD
Normal weight: 2.5 ± 2.7
Overweight: 4.1 ± 2.4
CRP levels correlate significantly with BMI ( ).