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Figure 1: Pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetes comprehend epigenetic changes and intracellular metabolic changes that result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. CRP: C-reactive protein; FFA: free fatty acids; INOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1: interleukin 1; IL-6: interleukin 6; MCP-1: monocyte chemoattractant molecule 1; MMP: matrix metalloproitenase; NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa-β; PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; VCAM-1; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; VEFG: vascular endothelial growth factor; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; INF-γ: Interferon-γ.