Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2014, Article ID 126365, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/126365
Research Article

Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Expands Regulatory T Cells and Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Stiffening

1Saver Heart Center, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
3Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
4Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
6Arizona Health Sciences Center, Room 4402, 1501 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA

Received 13 June 2014; Accepted 24 July 2014; Published 2 September 2014

Academic Editor: Tomohiro Katsuya

Copyright © 2014 Beenish Majeed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. J. Zieman, V. Melenovsky, and D. A. Kass, “Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and therapy of arterial stiffness,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 932–943, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Liao, D. K. Arnett, H. A. Tyroler et al., “Arterial stiffness and the development of hypertension: the ARIC study,” Hypertension, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 201–206, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. M. Kaess, J. Rong, M. G. Larson et al., “Aortic stiffness, blood pressure progression, and incident hypertension,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 308, no. 9, pp. 875–881, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. U. S. Mattace-Raso, T. J. M. van der Cammen, A. Hofman et al., “Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: the Rotterdam Study,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 657–663, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. E. Safar, G. M. London, and G. E. Plante, “Arterial stiffness and kidney function,” Hypertension, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 163–168, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. B. Gorelick, A. Scuteri, S. E. Black et al., “Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American heart association/American stroke association,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 2672–2713, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Adji, M. F. O'Rourke, and M. Namasivayam, “Arterial stiffness, its assessment, prognostic value, and implications for treatment,” The American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Shao, M. Nangaku, T. Miyata et al., “Imbalance of T-cell subsets in angiotensin II-infused hypertensive rats with kidney injury,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Zhao, M. Li, L. Wang et al., “Angiotensin II induces TSLP via an AT1 receptor/NF-KappaB pathway, promoting Th17 differentiation,” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1383–1397, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. D. Zhang, M. B. Patel, Y. S. Song et al., “A Novel role for type 1 angiotensin receptors on T lymphocytes to limit target organ damage in hypertension,” Circulation Research, vol. 110, no. 12, pp. 1604–1617, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Platten, S. Youssef, M. H. Eun et al., “Blocking angiotensin-converting enzyme induces potent regulatory T cells and modulates TH1- and TH17-mediated autoimmunity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 35, pp. 14948–14953, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. J. Guzik, N. E. Hoch, K. A. Brown et al., “Role of the T cell in the genesis of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular dysfunction,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 204, no. 10, pp. 2449–2460, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. L. Schiffrin, “Immune mechanisms in hypertension and vascular injury,” Clinical Science, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 267–274, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. S. Madhur, H. E. Lob, L. A. McCann et al., “Interleukin 17 promotes angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular dysfunction,” Hypertension, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 500–507, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Barhoumi, D. A. Kasal, M. W. Li et al., “T Regulatory lymphocytes prevent angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular injury,” Hypertension, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 469–476, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. E. Webster, S. Walters, R. E. Kohler et al., “In vivo expansion of t reg cells with il-2-mab complexes: induction of resistance to eae and long-term acceptance of islet allografts without immunosuppression,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 206, no. 4, pp. 751–760, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. O. Boyman, M. Kovar, M. P. Rubinstein, C. D. Surh, and J. Sprent, “Selective stimulation of T cell subsets with antibody-cytokine immune complexes,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5769, pp. 1924–1927, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Lee, M. Cho, H. Oh et al., “Interleukin-2/anti-interleukin-2 monoclonal antibody immune complex suppresses collagen-induced arthritis in mice by fortifying interleukin-2/STAT5 signalling pathways,” Immunology, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 305–316, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. N. Dinh, T. S. Kyaw, P. Kanellakis et al., “Cytokine therapy with interleukin-2/anti-interleukin-2 monoclonal antibody complexes expands CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and attenuates development and progression of atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 126, no. 10, pp. 1256–1266, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. W. Nichols, M. F. O'Rourke, C. Vlachopoulos, A. P. Hoeks, and R. S. Reneman, McDonald's Blood Flow in Arteries Theoretical, Experimental and clinical Principles, Hodder Arnold, London, UK, 2011.
  21. L. Markó, H. Kvakan, J. Park et al., “Interferon-γ signaling inhibition ameliorates angiotensin ii-induced cardiac damage,” Hypertension, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1430–1436, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. J. Valente, T. Yoshida, J. D. Gardner, N. Somanna, P. Delafontaine, and B. Chandrasekar, “Interleukin-17A stimulates cardiac fibroblast proliferation and migration via negative regulation of the dual-specificity phosphatase MKP-1/DUSP-1,” Cellular Signalling, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 560–568, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Liu, H. Zhu, Z. Su et al., “Il-17 contributes to cardiac fibrosis following experimental autoimmune myocarditis by a PKCβ/Erk1/2/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway,” International Immunology, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 605–612, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Meng, K. Wang, T. Aoyama et al., “Interleukin-17 signaling in inflammatory, Kupffer cells, and hepatic stellate cells exacerbates liver fibrosis in mice,” Gastroenterology, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 765.e3–776.e3, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. S. Wilson, S. K. Madala, T. R. Ramalingam et al., “Bleomycin and IL-1γ-mediated pulmonary fibrosis is IL-17A dependent,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 207, no. 3, pp. 535–552, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Wu, S. R. Thabet, A. Kirabo et al., “Inflammation and mechanical stretch promote aortic stiffening in hypertension through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase,” Circulation Research, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 616–625, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  27. C. Hsieh, Y. Zheng, Y. Liang, J. D. Fontenot, and A. Y. Rudensky, “An intersection between the self-reactive regulatory and nonregulatory T cell receptor repertoires,” Nature Immunology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 401–410, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Kanellakis, T. N. Dinh, A. Agrotis, and A. Bobik, “CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppress cardiac fibrosis in the hypertensive heart,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1820–1828, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Kvakan, M. Kleinewietfeld, F. Qadri et al., “Regulatory T cells ameliorate angiotensin II-induced cardiac damage,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 22, pp. 2904–2912, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Matrougui, A. E. Zakaria, M. Kassan et al., “Natural regulatory T cells control coronary arteriolar endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive mice,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 434–441, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Weber, S. Meiler, Y. Döring et al., “CCL17-expressing dendritic cells drive atherosclerosis by restraining regulatory T cell homeostasis in mice,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. 2898–2910, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Létourneau, E. M. M. Van Leeuwen, C. Krieg et al., “IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes show strong biological activity by avoiding interaction with IL-2 receptor α subunit CD25,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 2171–2176, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. E. Hoch, T. J. Guzik, W. Chen et al., “Regulation of T-cell function by endogenously produced angiotensin II,” American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 296, no. 2, pp. R208–R216, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Q. Zhang, F. Cui, L. Fang, J. Hong, B. Zheng, and J. Z. Zhang, “TNF-α impairs differentiation and function of TGF-β-induced Treg cells in autoimmune diseases through Akt and Smad3 signaling pathway,” Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 85–98, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Nie, Y. Zheng, R. Li et al., “Phosphorylation of FOXP3 controls regulatory T cell function and is inhibited by TNF-α in rheumatoid arthritis,” Nature Medicine, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 322–328, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. J. Pagano and D. D. Gutterman, “The adventitia: the outs and ins of vascular disease,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 636–639, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Herrmann, S. Samee, A. Chade, M. R. Porcel, L. O. Lerman, and A. Lerman, “Differential effect of experimental hypertension and hypercholesterolemia on adventitial remodeling,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 447–453, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Laurence, C. M. Tato, T. S. Davidson et al., “Interleukin-2 signaling via STAT5 constrains T helper 17 cell generation,” Immunity, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 371–381, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. J. Saphirstein and K. G. Morgan, “The contribution of vascular smooth muscle to aortic stiffness across length scales,” Microcirculation, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 201–207, 2014. View at Google Scholar