Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2016, Article ID 2014201, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2014201
Research Article

The Hypertension of Hemophilia Is Not Explained by the Usual Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Results of a Cohort Study

1Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
2Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
3School of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA
4Washington Center for Bleeding Disorders at Bloodworks NW, Seattle, WA, USA
5Orthopaedic Hemophilia Treatment Center, Orthopaedic Institute for Children, Los Angeles, CA, USA
6Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA

Received 3 June 2016; Accepted 12 October 2016

Academic Editor: Claudio Borghi

Copyright © 2016 Richard F. W. Barnes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. A. Larsson, “Life expectancy of Swedish haemophiliacs, 1831–1980,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 593–602, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. C. Darby, W. K. Sau, R. J. Spooner et al., “Mortality rates, life expectancy, and causes of death in people with hemophilia A or B in the United Kingdom who were not infected with HIV,” Blood, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 815–825, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. L. Chorba, R. C. Holman, M. J. Clarke, and B. L. Evatt, “Effects of HIV infection on age and cause of death for persons with hemophilia A in the United States,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 229–240, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Biere-Rafi, M. A. Baarslag, M. Peters et al., “Cardiovascular risk assessment in haemophilia patients,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 274–278, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. R. Rosendaal, E. Briet, J. Stibbe et al., “Haemophilia protects against ischaemic heart disease: a study of risk factors,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 525–530, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. E. Fransen van de Putte, K. Fischer, M. Makris et al., “Increased prevalence of hypertension in haemophilia patients,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 750–755, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. von Drygalski, N. A. Kolaitis, R. Bettencourt et al., “Prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in hemophilia,” Hypertension, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 209–215, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. S. Sait, A. Kuo, R. Bettencourt, J. Bergstrom, M. Allison, and A. von Drygalski, “Risk assessment for coronary heart disease in patients with haemophilia: a single centre study in the United States,” Haemophilia, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 763–770, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. C. R. Ljung, “Intracranial haemorrhage in haemophilia A and B,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 378–384, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Nuss, J. M. Soucie, and B. Evatt, “Changes in the occurrence of and risk factors for hemophilia-associated intracranial hemorrhage,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. Stieltjes, T. Calvez, V. Demiguel et al., “Intracranial haemorrhages in French haemophilia patients (1991–2001): clinical presentation, management and prognosis factors for death,” Haemophilia, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 452–458, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Witmer, R. Presley, R. Kulkarni, J. M. Soucie, C. S. Manno, and L. Raffini, “Associations between intracranial haemorrhage and prescribed prophylaxis in a large cohort of haemophilia patients in the United States,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 211–216, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. V. Antunes, P. Vicari, S. Cavalheiro, and J. O. Bordin, “Intracranial haemorrhage among a population of haemophilic patients in Brazil,” Haemophilia, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 573–577, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. C. Kim, C. M. Nam, S. H. Jee, and I. Suh, “Comparison of blood pressure-associated risk of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation study,” Hypertension, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 393–397, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. L. Sun, M. Yang, A. S. Sait, A. von Drygalski, and S. Jackson, “Haematuria is not a risk factor of hypertension or renal impairment in patients with haemophilia,” Haemophilia, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 549–555, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. D. Lloyd-Jones and D. Levy, “Epidemiology of hypertension,” in Hypertension: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease, H. R. Black and W. Elliott, Eds., Elsevier/Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. L. Friedman, C. Furberg, and D. DeMets, Fundamentals of Clinical Trials, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  18. American Diabetes Association, “Standards of medical care in diabetes—2010,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, supplement 1, pp. S11–S61, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. S. Levey, J. P. Bosch, J. B. Lewis, T. Greene, N. Rogers, and D. Roth, “A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 130, no. 6, pp. 461–470, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. G. Pickering, J. E. Hall, L. J. Appel et al., “Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 697–716, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2014: Overview, National Center for Health Statistics, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Md, USA, 2015.
  22. D. Kleinbaum, L. Kupper, A. Nizam, and K. Muller, Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods, Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, Calif, USA, 2008.
  23. S. S. Franklin, W. Gustin, N. D. Wong et al., “Hemodynamic patterns of age-related changes in blood pressure: the Framingham Heart Study,” Circulation, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 308–315, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. T. Sartori, F. Bilora, E. Zanon et al., “Endothelial dysfunction in haemophilia patients,” Haemophilia, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1055–1062, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. V. Bhat, M. Olmer, S. Joshi et al., “Vascular remodeling underlies rebleeding in hemophilic arthropathy,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 1027–1035, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. E. Fransen van de Putte, K. Fischer, M. Makris et al., “Unfavourable cardiovascular disease risk profiles in a cohort of Dutch and British haemophilia patients,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. A. Sharathkumar, J. M. Soucie, B. Trawinski, A. Greist, and A. D. Shapiro, “Prevalence and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among patients with haemophilia: experience of a single haemophilia treatment centre in the United States (US),” Haemophilia, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 597–604, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Z. M. Younossi, M. Stepanova, F. Nader, Z. Younossi, and E. Elsheikh, “Associations of chronic hepatitis C with metabolic and cardiac outcomes,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 647–652, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. P. M. S. Oliveira, C. R. Kappel, E. R. Siqueira et al., “Effects of Hepatitis C virus on cardiovascular risk in infected patients: A Comparative Study,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 221–226, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Perticone, S. Miceli, R. Maio et al., “Chronic HCV infection increases cardiac left ventricular mass index in normotensive patients,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 755–760, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Perticone, R. Maio, E. J. Tassone et al., “Insulin-resistance HCV infection-related affects vascular stiffness in normotensives,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 238, no. 1, pp. 108–112, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Negro, D. Forton, A. Craxì, M. S. Sulkowski, J. J. Feld, and M. P. Manns, “Extrahepatic morbidity and mortality of chronic hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, vol. 149, no. 6, pp. 1345–1360, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. V. Katsi, I. Felekos, S. Skevofilax et al., “Cardiovascular disease and hepatitis C virus infection: an irrelevant statement or a hot relationship?” Cardiology in Review, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Modan, H. Halkin, S. Almog et al., “Hyperinsulinemia. A link between hypertension obesity and glucose intolerance,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 809–817, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Addison, S. Stas, M. R. Hayden, and J. R. Sowers, “Insulin resistance and blood pressure,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 319–325, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Ferrannini, G. Buzzigoli, R. Bonadonna et al., “Insulin resistance in essential hypertension,” Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 130, no. 1-2, pp. 3–10, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. Ferrannini, “Insulin resistance and blood pressure,” in Insulin Resistance: The Metabolic Syndrome X, G. M. Reaven and A. Law, Eds., pp. 281–308, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. Small, P. E. Rose, N. McMillan et al., “Haemophilia and the kidney: assessment after 11-year follow-up,” British Medical Journal, vol. 285, no. 6355, pp. 1609–1611, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Kulkarni, J. M. Soucie, B. Evatt et al., “Renal disease among males with haemophilia,” Haemophilia, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 703–710, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. A. Hamed, M. H. Shalaby, N. S. El-Kinawy, A. A. Elamawy, and S. M. Abd El-Ghany, “Renal abnormalities among Egyptian children with hemophilia a using renal scintigraphy: relation to risk factors and disease severity,” Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar