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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2019, Article ID 7489875, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7489875
Research Article

Personality Traits, Clinical Characteristics, and Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients with Hypertension in a Primary Hospital in Ghana

1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
2Department of Research, Korle Bu teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana
3Department of Psychology, School of Social Studies, College of Humanities, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
4Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

Correspondence should be addressed to Irene A. Kretchy; hg.ude.gu@yhcterki

Received 6 August 2018; Revised 12 December 2018; Accepted 20 December 2018; Published 2 January 2019

Academic Editor: Tomohiro Katsuya

Copyright © 2019 Irene A. Kretchy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Hypertension is a major health problem that remains a significant threat to the health and general wellbeing of many people all over the world. In some patients, the etiology and prognosis of hypertension have been linked to psychological factors including personality traits. One primary goal of management is to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with hypertension. This study aimed to examine the association between personality traits, clinical characteristics, and HRQoL in hypertension. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in a sample of 331 individuals with hypertension. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical information, personality traits, and HRQoL were obtained from participants using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Results. The number of participants with a 1–10 years’ duration of diagnosis for hypertension was highest (56.8%), with 52.9% having comorbidities such as diabetes (40.2%) and dyslipidaemia (20.9%). The average number of medications taken per patient was 2.14 (SD±0.79) and about 47.1% of the participants reported adequate medication adherence. Significant associations for age, education, monthly income, number of years with hypertension, and HRQoL were observed. While conscientiousness was significantly associated with all HRQoL domains, extraversion and agreeableness were significantly related to only the environmental domain. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that clinical characteristics and patients’ perception of their personality are relevant to their health-related quality of life outcomes. The findings suggest that when intervention efforts to improve the quality of life of patients with hypertension are being considered, a biopsychosocial approach should be employed. The implication is that treatment of hypertension in Ghana should be broadened to include the expertise of mental health professionals.