International Journal of Hypertension / 2019 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Chronic Kidney Disease and Pulse Wave Velocity: A Narrative Review

Table 2

Interventional trials in the non-dialysis CKD population using PWV as a reported outcome.

StudyPopulation and follow upInterventionOutcome

Lipid-lowering trials
Fassett et al, 2010 [47]
37 CKD Stage 2–4, >3 years follow-upAtorvastatin 10mg daily vs placebo48% slower increase in PWV with atorvastatin (not significant)
Morita et al, 2014 [56]37 CKD Stage 2–5, >24 weeks follow-upEzetimibe 10mg dailySignificant reduction in brachial ankle PWV (1,770.4±590.3 cm/s to 1,702.5± 519.9 cm/s), but no correlation with LDL levels
Anti-hypertensive trials
Edwards et al, 2009 [57]112 CKD Stage 2–3, 40 weeks follow upSpironolactone 25mg daily vs placeboImprovement in PWV -0.8 +/- 1.0m/s vs -0.1 +/- 0.9m/s
Frimodt-Møller et al, 2012 [48]67 CKD Stage 3–5, 24 weeks follow-upMonotherapy with ACEI or ARB, then randomised to dual therapyImproved arterial stiffness in dual RAS blockade cohort (PWV -0.3m/s)
Boesby et al, 2013 [49]
54 CKD Stage 3–4, >24 weeks follow-upOpen label trial of eplerenone vs placeboNo effect on PWV; reduction in pulse wave reflection with eplerenone
CKD-MBD Modulation trials
Chitalia et al, 2014 [58]26 CKD Stage 3–4, 18 weeks follow upVitamin D supplementation 300,000 units at baseline and 8 weeksNo significant effect on arterial stiffness; change in endothelial biomarkers with reductions in ICAM-1, VCAM-1
Kumar et al, 2017 [59]120 CKD Stage 2–4, 16 weeks follow-upCholecalciferol 300,000 IU at baseline and 8 weeks vs placeboSignificant reduction in PWV with cholecalciferol (-1.24 m/s over 16 weeks)
Levin et al, 2017 [60]87 CKD Stage 3b-4, 6 months follow-upVitamin D 5000 IU daily, calcitriol vs placeboNon-significant change in PWV with fixed dose cholecalciferol
Seifert et al, 2013 [61]38 CKD Stage 3, 12 months follow-upLanthanum carbonate vs placeboNon-significant change in PWV
Chue et al, 2013 [62]
120 non-diabetic CKD Stage 3, 40 weeks follow-upSevelamer carbonate vs placeboNo change observed in PWV
Non-pharmacological trials
Van Craenenbroek et al, 2015 [63]48 CKD Stage 3–4, 3 months follow-upParallel group design, 3-month home based aerobic training program (4 daily training sessions of cycling) vs controlNo significant change in PWV

Abbreviations: CKD, chronic kidney disease;ICAM-1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1; LDL, low-density lipoprotein;PWV, pulse wave velocity; VCAM-1, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1.
ALBLOCK-2, Aldosterone Blockade in CKD.
LORD, Lipid Lowering and Onset of CKD trial.

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