The Effect of Submucosal Injection of Plasma-Rich Platelets on Blood Inflammatory Markers for Patients with Bimaxillary Protrusion Undergoing Orthodontic TreatmentRead the full article
International Journal of Inflammation publishes papers on the molecular basis, cell biology and pharmacology of inflammation, including acute/chronic inflammation and the cellular processes/molecular mechanisms involved in inflammatory responses.
International Journal of Inflammation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis: The Role of Sialendoscopy
Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is a recurrent parotid inflammation of nonobstructive, nonsuppurative nature. It manifests in childhood and usually resolves after puberty but may also persist into adulthood. JRP is characterized by recurrent episodes of unilateral or/and bilateral parotid swelling with pain, reduction of salivary secretion, swallowing difficulty, fever, and malaise. The cause of this condition remains obscure. Throughout the last two decades, many therapeutic methods have been used in order to reduce the frequency and severity of JRP. During the acute episodes, conservative approaches (antibiotics, analgesics, sialogogues, massage of the parotid gland, and mouth rinses) are used. Parotidectomy has been suggested in rare selective occasions. Recently, a promising concept of sialendoscopy, which is a minimal invasive endoscopic technique, has been applied. This review outlines the literature on JRP focusing on methods and challenges in diagnosing JRP along with the differential diagnosis of JRP and the function of the parotid during JRP. In addition, we describe the treatment options for JRP, pointing out the importance of sialendoscopy as a diagnostic and treatment procedure that offers improvement in patients’ daily life.
Skin Acute Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review
Experimental work of the last two decades has revealed the general steps of the wound healing process. This complex network has been organized in three sequential and overlapping steps. The first step of the inflammatory phase is an immediate response to injury; primary sensory neurons sense injury and send danger signals to the brain, to stop bleeding and start inflammation. The following target of the inflammatory phase, led by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, is to eliminate the pathogens and clean the wound. Once this is completed, the inflammatory phase is resolved and homeostasis is restored. The aim of the proliferative phase, the second phase, is to repair wound damage and begin tissue remodeling. Fibroplasia, reepithelialization, angiogenesis, and peripheral nerve repair are the central actions of this phase. Lastly, the objective of the final phase is to complete tissue remodeling and restore skin integrity. This review provides present day information regarding the status of the participant cells, extracellular matrix, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, as well as their interactions with the microenvironment during the wound healing process.
Epigenetics and Inflammatory Markers: A Systematic Review of the Current Evidence
Epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in the genetic regulation of pathways related to inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review studies investigating the association between DNA methylation and histone modifications with circulatory inflammation markers in blood. Five bibliographic databases were screened until 21 November of 2017. We included studies conducted on humans that examined the association between epigenetic marks (DNA methylation and/or histone modifications) and a comprehensive list of inflammatory markers. Of the 3,759 identified references, 24 articles were included, involving, 17,399 individuals. There was suggestive evidence for global hypomethylation but better-quality studies in the future have to confirm this. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) (n=7) reported most of the identified differentially methylated genes to be hypomethylated in inflammatory processes. Candidate genes studies reported 18 differentially methylated genes related to several circulatory inflammation markers. There was no overlap in the methylated sites investigated in candidate gene studies and EWAS, except for TMEM49, which was found to be hypomethylated with higher inflammatory markers in both types of studies. The relation between histone modifications and inflammatory markers was assessed by one study only. This review supports an association between epigenetic marks and inflammation, suggesting hypomethylation of the genome. Important gaps in the quality of studies were reported such as inadequate sample size, lack of adjustment for relevant confounders, and failure to replicate the findings. While most of the studies have been focused on C-reactive protein, further efforts should investigate other inflammatory markers.
Morphological Characteristics of the Thymus and Spleen and the Subpopulation Composition of Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood during Systemic Inflammatory Response in Male Rats with Different Resistance to Hypoxia
On the model of the systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the morphological and functional changes in the thymus and spleen and the subpopulation composition of peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats differing in resistance to hypoxia were studied. It was demonstrated that the level of endotoxin in blood serum after 3 hours of LPS administration in susceptible-to-hypoxia rats was 64 times higher than in the control group, while in tolerant-to-hypoxia animals it was only 8 times higher in 6 hours. After 24 hours of LPS injection, only in susceptible-to-hypoxia rats did the level of C-reactive protein in blood serum increase. There is a difference in the dynamics of morphological changes of lymphoid organs after LPS injection in tolerant- and susceptible-to-hypoxia animals. After 3 hours of LPS administration, the tolerant-to-hypoxia rats showed no changes in the thymus, spleen, and subpopulation composition of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. After 6 hours there was only a decrease in B-lymphocytes and increase in cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK cells. After 1 day of LPS injection, the tolerant-to-hypoxia rats had devastation in PALS of the spleen. After 3 hours of LPS injection the susceptible-to-hypoxia animals had reactive changes in the lymphoid organs: decrease of the thymus cortex, narrowing of the marginal zones of spleen lymphoid follicles, widening of their germinal centers, and a decrease in the absolute number of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, NK cells, and B-lymphocytes. After 24 hours of LPS injection the tolerant-to-hypoxia animals had a greater absolute number of T-lymphocytes and NK cells in comparison with the susceptible rats. Thus, in animals with different resistance to hypoxia the LPS-induced SIRS is characterized by different dynamics of morphological and functional changes of the thymus and spleen. The obtained data will serve as a basis for the development of new individual approaches to the prevention and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases.
Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in Pulmonary Inflammation in Asthma Induced by House Dust Mite (HDM): Dosimetry Study
Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airways. Several models have been proposed for the discovery of new therapies. Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is relatively new and effective, very low cost, with no side effects. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal dose to be used. In this sense, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the best dose in an experimental model of asthma induced by House Dust Mite (HDM). Balb/c mice received administration of 100 ug/animal HDM and LLLT applications (diode laser: 660 nm, 100 mW and four different energies 1J, 3J, 5J, and 7.5J) for 16 days. After 24 hours, we studied inflammatory, functional, and structural parameters. The results showed that LBI was able to modulate the pulmonary inflammation observed by reducing the number of cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) as well as reducing the percentage of neutrophils, eosinophils and T lymphocytes. On the other hand, LLLT increased the level of IL-10 and reduced levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in BALF. LLLT was able to reduce the production of mucus, peribronchial eosinophils, collagen deposition, bronchoconstriction index, and bronchial and muscular thickening in the airways. We concluded that the use of LLLT in the treatment of chronic inflammation of the airways attenuated the inflammatory process and functional and structural parameters. We emphasize, in general, that the 1J and 3J laser presented better results. Thus, photobiomodulation may be considered a promising tool for the treatment of chronic pulmonary allergic inflammation observed in asthma.
Molecular Patterns of MEFV Gene Mutations in Egyptian Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Background. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary autosomal recessive disease which is mainly seen in the Turks, Armenians, Arabs, and Jews. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, polyserositis, and rash. MEFV gene, encoding pyrin protein, is located on the short arm of chromosome 16. FMF is associated with a broad mutational spectrum in this gene. Certain mutations are more common in particular ethnic groups. To date, different mutations of MEFV were observed in studies carried out in different regions worldwide. However, most of these studies did not extensively investigate the Egyptian population, in spite of the high prevalence of FMF in this geographical region. Aim. To identify the frequency of MEFV gene mutations among the patients who presented with FMF like symptoms and, to characterize the different genetic mutations and their association with increased Amyloid A among Egyptian patients. Methods. FMF Strip Assay (Vienna Lab Diagnostics, Vienna, Austria) was used. This test is based on reverse hybridization of biotinylated PCR products on immobilized oligonucleotides for mutations and controls in a parallel array of allele-specific oligonucleotides. Results. Among the 1387 patients presenting with signs and symptoms suggestive of FMF, 793 (57.2%) were of undefined mutations, whereas 594 had MEFV gene mutations. 363 patients (26.2%) were heterozygous mutants, 175 patients (12.6%) were compound heterozygous mutants, and 56 patients (4%) were homozygous mutants. The most commonly encountered gene mutations in heterozygous and homozygous groups were E148Q (38.6%), M694I (18.1%), and V726A (15.8%). The most commonly encountered gene mutations in the compound heterozygous groups were E148Q+M694I observed in 20.6% of the patients, followed by M694I+V726A and M6801+V726A found in 18.9% and 11.4 %, respectively. The most commonly encountered gene mutation associated with abdominal pain, fever, and high serum Amyloid A was E148Q allele (37.5%). Conclusions. Unlike all previous publications, E148Q allele was found to be the most frequent in the studied patients. Moreover, this allele was associated with increased Amyloid A. 793 patients were free of the 12 studied Mediterranean mutations, which implies the necessity to perform future sequencing studies to reveal other mutations.