Ozonated Aloe vera Oil Effective Increased the Number of Fibroblasts and Collagen Thickening in the Healing Response of Full-Thickness Skin DefectsRead the full article
International Journal of Inflammation publishes papers on the molecular basis, cell biology and pharmacology of inflammation, including acute/chronic inflammation and the cellular processes/molecular mechanisms involved in inflammatory responses.
International Journal of Inflammation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Various Forms of Tuberculosis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Treated with Biological Agents
Although there are undeniable advantages of treatment of the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis, with biological agents, the increased susceptibility to tuberculosis should not be ignored. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum. Primary tuberculosis is uncommon in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease: reactivation of latent tuberculosis is of greater concern. Consequently, latent infection should be excluded in patients who qualify for immunosuppressive treatments. Apart from the review of the literature, this article also presents three cases of different patterns of tuberculosis that occurred during treatment with infliximab, adalimumab, or vedolizumab. The first case reports a case of tuberculosis presenting as right middle lobe pneumonia. The second case featured miliary tuberculosis of the lungs with involvement of the mediastinal lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. The third patient developed a tuberculoma of the right parietal lobe and tuberculous meningitis. It is important to reiterate that every patient qualifying for a biologic agent should undergo testing to accurately identify latent tuberculosis, as well as precise monitoring for the possible development of one of the various forms or patterns of tuberculosis during treatment.
The Influence of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Spondyloarthritis
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease related to low bone mineral density. Because vitamin D plays an important role in bone metabolism and immune system modulation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor genes (VDR) in the development of SpA. In this case–control study, a total of 244 patients with SpA and 197 individuals with no SpA were included. Among the patients, 174 had ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 66 had psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Genotyping of FokI (rs2228570 C > T), BsmI (rs1544410 C > T), ApaI (rs7975232 A > C), and TaqI (rs731236 T > C) was performed using PCR-RFLP, while genotyping of HLA-B27 was performed using PCR-SSP. Serum levels for hydroxy (OH) vitamin D and the clinical activity index of the disease (BASDAI) were also evaluated. SNPStats and OpenEpi software were used for statistical analysis. The ApaI a allele and ApaI a/a genotype were less frequent in PsA compared with controls. The ApaI a/a genotype was associated with a protecting factor for PsA in females, and ApaI A/a was associated with a protecting factor for the disease in HLA-B27 positive patients. Notwithstanding, the ApaI a/a genotype was a risk factor for SpA and AS in males. The FokI f/f genotype was associated with a better clinical activity in PsA. When considering the covariates, vitamin D sufficiency, and gender, the FokI F/F genotype was associated with a risk factor in males with SpA and AS compared with females with this same genotype. In conclusion, the ApaI rs7975232 polymorphism was associated with PsA, and the FokI rs2228570 polymorphism was associated with better clinical PsA activity. ApaI and FokI were associated with SpA and AS when considering gender and vitamin D sufficiency.
Inflammatory Serum Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer in Kazakhstan Population
Colorectal cancer is a type of oncopathology widespread in Kazakhstan. The genetic component, as well as the possible etiopathogenetic mechanisms, is widely studied. One of the most promising areas is the study of diagnostic and prognostic possibilities of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with different degrees of tumor differentiation. The following biomarkers were included in the study panel: stem cell factor (SCF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 8 (IL8), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), soluble Fas (SFAS), soluble Fas ligand (sFASL), transforming growth factor β (TGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). The data of our study show that most of the basic proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the systemic process and their levels do not depend on the level of tissue differentiation. Serum PD-L1 has shown itself to be a promising marker for tumor growth, which depends on the degree of differentiation.
The Effect of Lithium on Inflammation-Associated Genes in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Raw 264.7 Macrophages
Lithium remains the preferred Food and Drug Administration- (FDA-) approved psychiatric drug for treatment of bipolar disorders since its medical establishment more than half a century ago. Recent studies revealed a promising role for lithium in the regulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration albeit unclear about its exact mode of action. Thus, the intention of this study is to delineate the regulatory mechanisms of lithium on oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated macrophages by evaluating its effects on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and mRNA expression of multiple oxidative stress-related NF-κB genes. Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with up to 10 mM lithium, and no change in cell proliferation, viability, growth, and cell adhesion was observed in real time. Pretreatment with low doses of lithium was shown to reduce nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-activated macrophages. A reduced internal H2DCFDA fluorescence intensity, indicative of reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, was observed in LPS-activated Raw 264.7 macrophages treated with lithium. Lithium has been shown to lower the production of the chemokine RANTES; furthermore, this inhibitory action of lithium has been suggested to be independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK3β) activity. It is shown here that lithium modulates the expression of several inflammatory genes including IκB-α, TRAF3, Tollip, and NF-κB1/p50 which are regulators of the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, lithium inhibits NF-κB activity by lowering nuclear translocation of NF-κB in LPS-activated macrophages. This is the first study to associate Tollip, Traf-3, and IκB-α mRNA expression with lithium effect on NF-κB activity in LPS-activated Raw 264.7 macrophages. Although these effects were obtained using extratherapeutic concentrations of lithium, results of this study provide useful information towards understanding the mode of action of lithium. This study associates lithium with reduced oxidative stress in LPS-activated Raw 264.7 macrophages and further suggests candidate molecular targets for the regulation of oxidative stress-related diseases using lithium beyond bipolar disorders.
Prognostic Value of C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio in Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients Treated with Concurrent Radiotherapy and Temozolomide
Objective. We investigated the prognostic impact of C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CRP/Alb) on the survival outcomes of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent plus adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods. The pretreatment CRP and Alb records of GBM patients who underwent RT and concurrent plus adjuvant TMZ were retrospectively analyzed. The CRP/Alb was calculated by dividing serum CRP level by serum Alb level obtained prior to RT. The availability of significant cutoff value for CRP/Alb that interacts with survival was assessed with the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The primary endpoint was the association between the CRP/Alb and the overall survival (OS). Results. A total of 153 patients were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 14.7 months, median and 5-year OS rates were 16.2 months (95% CI: 12.5–19.7) and 9.5%, respectively, for the entire cohort. The ROC curve analysis identified a significant cutoff value at 0.75 point (area under the curve: 74.9%; sensitivity: 70.9%; specificity: 67.7%; ) for CRP/Alb that interacts with OS and grouped the patients into two: CRP/Alb <0.75 (n = 61) and ≥0.75 (n = 92), respectively. Survival comparisons revealed that the CRP/Alb <0.75 was associated with a significantly superior median (22.5 versus 15.7 months; ) and 5-year (20% versus 0%) rates than the CRP/Alb ≥0.75, which retained its independent significance in multivariate analysis (). Conclusion. Present results suggested the pretreatment CRP/Alb as a significant and independent inflammation-based index which can be utilized for further prognostic lamination of GBM patients.
Effects of Albumin Infusion on Serum Levels of Albumin, Proinflammatory Cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6), CRP, and MMP-8; Tissue Expression of EGRF, ERK1, ERK2, TGF-β, Collagen, and MMP-8; and Wound Healing in Sprague Dawley Rats
In this study, we sought to determine the roles of albumin in wound healing, which is infused both pre- and postoperatively in malnourished patients presenting with hypoalbuminemia. For the purposes of the study, we used 25 male Sprague Dawley rats of predetermined weight and age, which were initially maintained in a standard environment and fed the same diet for 7 days prior to being segregated into one of the following five groups: A, control, normal protein feed (20% casein); B, hypoalbuminemia, 25% rat albumin infusion prior to surgery; C, hypoalbuminemia, normal protein feed (20% casein); D, hypoalbuminemia, 25% rat albumin infusion after surgery; and E, hypoalbuminemia, low-protein feed (casein 2%). The animals in all five groups were subjected to four deep incisions in their dorsal muscle fascia. On days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after surgery, ELISA was used to determine serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, CRP, and MMP-8, whereas immunohistochemistry was used to determine the tissue expression of EGFR, ERK1, ERK2, TGF-β, collagen, and MMP-8. Significant reductions in serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1, and CRP were detected in the groups receiving albumin infusion and the high-casein diet (). The administration of albumin and a high-casein diet also increased the tissue expression of EGFR, ERK1, ERK2, TGF-β, and collagen and decreased that of MMP-8 relative to the hypoalbuminemia control (). We propose that the administration of albumin promoted NF-κB signaling which, in turn, induced the transduction and transcription of factors involved in wound healing. Albumin infusion and dietary proteins play vital roles in accelerating the wound healing process, as they can contribute to correcting the hypoalbuminemic state. These findings provide insights that will contribute to our understanding of wound healing, particularly in malnourished patients.