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International Journal of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 184921, 10 pages
Research Article

Risk Factors for Chronic Mastitis in Morocco and Egypt

1University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, USA
2Department of Epidemiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health, Omaha, NE 68198-4395, USA
3Cairo University Medical School, Cairo 11796, Egypt
4Mansoura University Hospital, Mansoura, Dakahlia 35516, Egypt
5Hassan II University, Ibn Rochd Hospital, Casablanca 77110, Morocco
6Tanta Cancer Center, Dr. Nagati Street, Tanta 31512, Egypt
7L’Hopital Ibn Tofail, 40000 Marrakech, Morocco
8University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor,MI 48109-5948, USA

Received 21 June 2013; Accepted 26 August 2013

Academic Editor: G. Rogler

Copyright © 2013 Hanna N. Oltean et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62–1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07–3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39–5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36–1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.