Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 8741851, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8741851
Research Article

Does Inhalation of Virgin Coconut Oil Accelerate Reversal of Airway Remodelling in an Allergic Model of Asthma?

1Regenerative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia
2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
3School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Correspondence should be addressed to B. Yahaya; ym.msu@lurdab

Received 23 January 2017; Revised 18 April 2017; Accepted 30 April 2017; Published 4 June 2017

Academic Editor: Jian-Dong Li

Copyright © 2017 N. A. Kamalaldin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. J. Barnes, “Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 183–192, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Keir and C. Page, “The rabbit as a model to study asthma and other lung diseases,” Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 721–730, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. L. Hernandez, M. Herbst, J. C. Lay et al., “Atopic asthmatic patients have reduced airway inflammatory cell recruitment after inhaled endotoxin challenge compared with healthy volunteers,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 869.e2–876.e2, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. E. Davies, J. Wicks, R. M. Powell, S. M. Puddicombe, and S. T. Holgate, “Airway remodeling in asthma: new insights,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 215–226, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. El Gazzar, R. El Mezayen, J. C. Marecki, M. R. Nicolls, A. Canastar, and S. C. Dreskin, “Anti-inflammatory effect of thymoquinone in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1135–1142, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W.-K. Jung, I. Choi, S. Oh et al., “Anti-asthmatic effect of marine red alga (Laurencia undulata) polyphenolic extracts in a murine model of asthma,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 293–297, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Ra, S. Lee, H. J. Kim, Y. P. Jang, H. Ahn, and J. Kim, “Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam extract reduces ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and T helper 2 responses in mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 241–247, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. I. S. Kim, E. J. Yang, J.-S. Lee, C.-Y. Yun, Y. S. Ryang, and J.-B. Kim, “Suppression of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammatory responses in a mouse model of asthma by Mimosa pudica extract,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Karaman, F. Firinci, S. Cilaker et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in a murine model of chronic asthma,” Allergologia et Immunopathologia, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 210–214, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. J. Yang, J.-S. Lee, C.-Y. Yun et al., “Inhibitory effects of Duchesnea chrysantha extract on ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 102–107, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. G. Nevin and T. Rajamohan, “Effect of topical application of virgin coconut oil on skin components and antioxidant status during dermal wound healing in young rats,” Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 290–297, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Z. A. Zakaria, M. S. Rofiee, M. N. Somchit et al., “Hepatoprotective activity of dried- and fermented-processed virgin coconut oil,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 142739, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Intahphuak, P. Khonsung, and A. Panthong, “Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. N. Kamalaldin, S. Sulaiman, and B. Yahaya, “Apoptosis in lung cancer cells induced by exposure to virgin coconut oil,” Regenerative Research, vol. 4, pp. 30–36, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  15. V. M. Verallo-Rowell, K. M. Dillague, and B. S. Syah-Tjundawan, “Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis,” Dermatitis: Contact, Atopic, Occupational, Drug, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 308–315, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. M. Liau, Y. Y. Lee, C. K. Chen, and A. H. Rasool, “An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity,” ISRN Pharmacology, vol. 2011, Article ID 949686, 7 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. R. K. Kumar, C. Herbert, and P. S. Foster, “The "classical" ovalbumin challenge model of asthma in mice,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 485–494, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. A. Kamaruzaman, S. A. Sulaiman, G. Kaur, and B. Yahaya, “Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, article 176, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. T. Nials and S. Uddin, “Mouse models of allergic asthma: acute and chronic allergen challenge,” Disease Models and Mechanisms, vol. 1, no. 4-5, pp. 213–220, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Nadel, K. Takeyama, and C. Agustí, “Role of neutrophil elastase in hypersecretion in asthma,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 190–196, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. G. R. Zosky and P. D. Sly, “Animal models of asthma,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 973–988, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. H. Bates, M. Rincon, and C. G. Irvin, “Animal models of asthma,” AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 297, no. 3, pp. L401–L410, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. N. A. Kamaruzaman, E. Kardia, N. Kamaldin, A. Z. Latahir, and B. H. Yahaya, “The rabbit as a model for studying lung disease and stem cell therapy,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 691830, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. M. Brewer, M. Conacher, C. A. Hunter, M. Mohrs, F. Brombacher, and J. Alexander, “Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant initiates strong antigen-specific Th2 responses in the absence of IL-4- or IL-13-mediated signaling,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 163, no. 12, pp. 6448–6454, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. Pichavant, S. Goya, E. Hamelmann, E. W. Gelfand, and D. T. Umetsu, “Unit 15.18 Animal models of airway sensitization,” Current Protocols in Immunology, vol. 15, pp. 10–1002, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. M. L. Conrad, A. Ö. Yildirim, S. S. Sonar et al., “Comparison of adjuvant and adjuvant-free murine experimental asthma models,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1246–1254, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. H. Chung, S. H. Choi, J. a Choi, R. S. Chuck, and C. K. Joo, “Curcumin suppresses ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis,” Molecular Vision, vol. 18, pp. 1966–1972, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. E. R. Banerjee and W. R. Henderson, “Characterization of lung stem cell niches in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 3, no. 3, article 21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. J. Wardlaw, C. Brightling, R. Green, G. Woltmann, and I. Pavord, “Eosinophils in asthma and other allergic diseases,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 985–1003, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Bradding, “Asthma: eosinophil disease, mast cell disease, or both?” Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 84–90, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. M. Saetta and G. Turato, “Airway pathology in asthma,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 18–23, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. T. J. Toward and K. J. Broadley, “Goblet cell hyperplasia, airway function, and leukocyte infiltration after chronic lipopolysaccharide exposure in conscious guinea pigs: effects of rolipram and dexamethasone,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 302, no. 2, pp. 814–821, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Aoshiba and A. Nagai, “Differences in airway remodeling between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K.-S. Park, T. R. Korfhagen, M. D. Bruno et al., “SPDEF regulates goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway epithelium,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 978–988, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. M. Choe, P. H. Sporn, and M. A. Swartz, “An in vitro airway wall model of remodeling,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 285, no. 2, pp. 427–433, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Balzar, H. W. Chu, P. Silkoff et al., “Increased TGF-β2 in severe asthma with eosinophilia,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 110–117, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Chen, H. Wan, F. Luo et al., “Foxa2 programs Th2 cell-mediated innate immunity in the developing lung,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 184, no. 11, pp. 6133–6141, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. S. Hallstrand, P. G. Woodruff, S. T. Holgate, and D. A. Knight, “Function of the airway epithelium in asthma,” Journal of Allergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 160586, 2 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. S. Bhattacharyya, Y. Zhao, T. W. H. Kay, and L. J. Muglia, “Glucocorticoids target suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and type 1 interferons to regulate Toll-like receptor-induced STAT1 activation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 23, pp. 9554–9559, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Z. A. Zakaria, M. N. Somchit, A. M. Mat Jais, L. K. Teh, M. Z. Salleh, and K. Long, “In vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of dried and fermented processed virgin coconut oil,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 231–236, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Thai, A. Loukoianov, S. Wachi, and R. Wu, “Regulation of airway mucin gene expression,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 70, pp. 405–429, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. R. Curran and L. Cohn, “Advances in mucous cell metaplasia: A plug for mucus as a therapeutic focus in chronic airway disease,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 268–275, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. B. Lumsden, A. Mclean, and D. Lamb, “Goblet and Clara cells of human distal airways: evidence for smoking induced changes in their numbers,” Thorax, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 844–849, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. L. Ordoñez, R. Khashayar, H. H. Wong et al., “Mild and moderate asthma is associated with airway goblet cell hyperplasia and abnormalities in mucin gene expression,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 517–523, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Dong, G. Wang, B. Li et al., “Anti-asthmatic agents alleviate pulmonary edema by upregulating AQP1 and AQP5 expression in the lungs of mice with OVA-induced asthma,” Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. Paulissen, N. Rocks, M. M. Gueders et al., “Role of ADAM and ADAMTS metalloproteinases in airway diseases,” Respiratory Research, vol. 10, article 127, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Shen, Y. Wang, Z. Chen et al., “Role of aquaporin 5 in antigen-induced airway inflammation and mucous hyperproduction in mice,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1355–1363, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. Sterk, “The determinants of the severity of acute airway narrowing in asthma and COPD,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 391–396, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. R. Halwani, S. Al-Muhsen, H. Al-Jahdali, and Q. Hamid, “Role of transforming growth factor-β in airway remodeling in asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 127–133, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Citterio, S. Sgorbati, M. Levi, B. M. Colombo, and E. Sparvoli, “PCNA and total nuclear protein content as markers of cell proliferation in pea tissue,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. J. G. M. Kubben, A. Peeters-Haesevoets, L. G. J. B. Engels et al., “Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a new marker to study human colonic cell proliferation,” Gut, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 530–535, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Koundrioukoff, Z. O. Jónsson, S. Hasan et al., “A direct interaction between proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cdk2 targets PCNA-interacting proteins for phosphorylation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 30, pp. 22882–22887, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. A. Abujazia, N. Muhammad, A. N. Shuid, and I. N. Soelaiman, “The effects of virgin coconut oil on bone oxidative status in ovariectomised rat,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 525079, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. S. T. Mansor, Y. B. Che Man, M. Shuhaimi, M. J. Abdul Afiq, and F. K. M. Ku Nurul, “Physicochemical properties of virgin coconut oil extracted from different processing methods,” International Food Research Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 837–845, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. D. Bawalan, “Processing manual for virgin coconut oil, its products and by-products for pacific island countries and territories, 2011”.
  56. A. M. Marina, Y. B. Man, and I. Amin, “Virgin coconut oil: emerging functional food oil,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 481–487, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. F. M. Dayrit, O. M. Erin Buenafe, E. T. Chainani et al., “Standards for essential composition and quality factors of commercial virgin coconut oil and its differentiation from RBD coconut oil and copra oil,” Philippine Journal of Science, vol. 136, pp. 119–129, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  58. G. Elfianus, “Teknik pengolahan Virgin Coconut Oil menggunakan ragi tape,” Buletin Teknologi Pertanian, vol. 13, pp. 69–72, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  59. A. Rohman, Y. B. Che Man, A. Ismail, and P. Hashim, “Monitoring the oxidative stability of virgin coconut oil during oven test using chemical indexes and FTIR spectroscopy,” International Food Research Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 303–310, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. DebMandal and S. Mandal, “Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H. Winarsi and A. Purwanto, “Virgin coconut oil ( VCO ) enriched with Zn as immunostimulator for vaginal candidiasis patient,” HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 135–139, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. S. Arunima and T. Rajamohan, “Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 802–809, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. D. O. Ogbolu, A. A. Oni, O. A. Daini, and A. P. Oloko, “In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 384–387, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. G. Nevin and T. Rajamohan, “Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation,” Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 830–835, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. K. G. Nevin and T. Rajamohan, “Wet and dry extraction of coconut oil: Impact on lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 610–616, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. B. S. Nurul-Iman, Y. Kamisah, K. Jaarin, and H. M. S. Qodriyah, “Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 629329, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus